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中国游泳队禁药丑闻:世界反兴奋剂机构称其自身无过错

MICHAEL S. SCHMIDT, TARIQ PANJA

2024年7月10日

中国游泳运动员在2021年东京奥运会上夺得三枚金牌,并有望在下个月的巴黎奥运会上夺得更多金牌。 Antonio Bronic/Reuters

The World Anti-Doping Agency on Tuesday cleared itself of wrongdoing over its decision not to discipline elite Chinese swimmers who tested positive for a banned drug in the lead-up to the previous Summer Olympics, even as new details emerged that raised questions about how it had handled the decision.

周二,世界反兴奋剂机构宣布该机构对于上届夏季奥运会前药检阳性的中国优秀游泳运动员做出不予处罚的决定不存在过错。尽管此前有新细节浮出水面,引发了对该机构如何做出这一决定的质疑。

A special prosecutor appointed by the antidoping agency, known as WADA, to review its decision said he had found that the agency made an “indisputably reasonable” decision not to impose penalties on the swimmers, and concluded that the agency had not shown preferential treatment to China.

世界反兴奋剂机构任命的一名特别检察官负责审查其决定,他表示,他认为该机构令这些游泳运动员免受处罚是一个“无可争议的合理”决定,并得出结论,认为该机构没有偏袒中国。

But in an annex to his report, the prosecutor noted that two top scientists at the agency said they had difficulty believing China’s claim that the swimmers had been unwittingly contaminated.

但在其报告的附件中,检察官指出,该机构的两名顶级科学家表示,他们很难相信中国声称游泳运动员是在无意中受到污染的说法。

WADA’s decision to clear itself of wrongdoing is unlikely to satisfy antidoping experts and other critics — particularly those in the United States — who have contended that the investigator, Eric Cottier, was handpicked by agency officials and that the doping regulator, along with the Chinese, covered up the positive tests in 2021.

世界反兴奋剂机构澄清自己不存在不当行为的决定,恐怕难以让反兴奋剂专家和其他批评人士满意,尤其是美国的批评人士。他们认为,调查员埃里克·科蒂埃是由该机构官员特意挑选出来的,而该兴奋剂监管机构和中国一起掩盖了2021年的阳性检测结果。

The announcement came five days after it was revealed that the Justice Department and F.B.I. had opened a criminal investigation into how the positive tests were handled. And it emerged a little more than two months after The New York Times revealed that 23 top Chinese swimmers all tested positive for the same banned heart medication months before the 2021 Summer Games in Tokyo.

在宣布这一消息的五天前,有消息披露,司法部和联邦调查局已经对阳性检测结果的处理方式展开了刑事调查。两个多月前,《纽约时报》披露,在2021年东京夏季奥运会前几个月,23名中国顶级游泳运动员的心脏药物检测结果均呈阳性。

China’s antidoping agency blamed a mass contamination incident for the positives, in which the swimmers, it said, unwittingly ingested the banned drug trimetazidine, known as TMZ, after eating food served at a hotel where they were staying for a meet.

中国的反兴奋剂机构将药检结果呈阳性的原因归咎于一起大规模污染事件。该机构表示,在这起事件中,游泳运动员在参加比赛时下榻的一家酒店食用了酒店供应的食物后,无意中摄入了违禁药物曲美他嗪。

Despite being unable to prove how or why the swimmers ingested the drug, WADA — which is supposed to be the backstop when countries fail to properly police their own athletes — essentially took the Chinese explanation at face value when it declined to conduct its own investigation or discipline the athletes.

尽管无法证明这些游泳运动员如何或为何摄入这种药物,但世界反兴奋剂机构本应在各国未能妥善管理本国运动员时充当最后防线,但该机构却基本接受了中国的一面之辞,拒绝进行自己的调查或对运动员进行处分。

The lack of punishment paved the way for some of the Chinese swimmers to win medals — including three golds — at the Tokyo Olympics. Eleven of the 23 swimmers who tested positive are on the Chinese team set to compete in the Paris Games this month. Several are once again favorites to win medals.

免于受罚为一些中国游泳运动员在东京奥运会上赢得奖牌铺平了道路,其中包括三枚金牌。23名药检结果呈阳性的游泳运动员中,有11人是参加本月巴黎奥运会的中国队成员。有几个人再次成为奖牌热门人选。

In announcing the prosecutor’s findings, the head of WADA said the agency would now turn its attention to targeting those who, it said, had defamed the agency.

在宣布检察官的调查结果时,世界反兴奋剂机构负责人表示,该机构现在将把注意力转向那些诽谤该机构的人。

“Now that it has been confirmed by the independent prosecutor that there was no impropriety connected to WADA’s handling of the case, the agency will consider with external legal counsel what measures can be taken against those that have made untrue and potentially defamatory allegations,” WADA’s president, Witold Banka, said.

世界反兴奋剂机构主席维托尔德·班卡表示:“既然独立检察官已经确认,世界反兴奋剂机构对此案的处理不存在不当行为,该机构将与外部法律顾问一起,考虑对那些提出不实、可能具有诽谤性指控的人采取何种措施。”

He charged that news reports and accusations of a coverup “have been extremely damaging to WADA’s reputation and to the confidence and trust that athletes and other stakeholders have in the agency and in the global antidoping system.”

他指责说,有关掩盖事实的报道和指控“极大地损害了世界反兴奋剂机构的声誉,损害了运动员和其他利益相关者对该机构和全球反兴奋剂体系的信心和信任”。

09china swimming report 3 glbf master10502022年,世界反兴奋剂机构任命的特别检察官埃里克·科蒂埃。

Mr. Cottier’s investigation was limited in its scope. It did not, for example, study how China originally handled the cases and the information it relied upon to clear its swimmers. And the report he delivered is only in an interim form; a final version will not be completed and published before the start of the Paris Olympics, WADA said, even though some of the Chinese swimmers involved in the doping case — including several who have tested positive more than once without punishment — will compete in them.

科蒂埃的调查范围有限。例如,他的调查没有探究中国最初如何处理这些案件的,也没有对中国为洗脱那些游泳运动员的罪名所用的信息予以研究。他提交的报告只是一份初步报告;世界反兴奋剂机构表示,报告的最终版本不会在巴黎奥运会开始前完成公布,尽管涉及兴奋剂案的一些中国游泳运动员将参加比赛,其中包括几名多次检测结果呈阳性而未受到处罚的运动员。

WADA’s director general, Olivier Niggli, said the final report would be completed “in the coming weeks” and then discussed with the agency’s governing board in September. “We understand that it will contain recommendations aimed at strengthening the global antidoping system, which we welcome,” he said.

世界反兴奋剂机构总干事奥利维尔·尼格利表示,最终报告将在“未来几周内”完成,然后在9月份与该机构的管理委员会进行讨论。他说:“我们清楚,报告将包含旨在加强全球反兴奋剂体系的建议,我们对此表示欢迎。”

As part of its announcement on Tuesday, WADA released Mr. Cottier’s report and an annex to it. Included in the annex were details of internal discussions between two of WADA’s top scientists in 2021, as the agency grappled with how to deal with the positive tests in China.

作为周二声明的一部分,世界反兴奋剂机构公布了科蒂埃的报告及其附件。附件中包含了世界反兴奋剂机构两名顶级科学家在2021年进行内部讨论的细节,当时该机构正在努力研究如何处理中国的阳性检测结果。

According to the annex, WADA’s chief scientist, Olivier Rabin, said that he had doubts about the science behind the Chinese claims of contamination and “that the Chinese had not found, among the kitchen or hotel staff, a person taking TMZ.”

根据附件,世界反兴奋剂机构的首席科学家奥利维尔·拉宾说,他对中国声称的污染背后的科学依据持怀疑态度,“中国在厨房或酒店员工中没有发现服用曲美他嗪的人”。

WADA’s top scientist responsible for its banned substances list, Irene Mazzoni, said she had expressed “her difficulty in believing in the contamination due to the minimal doses found in the kitchen” where the drug had been found, according to the report.

根据该报告,世界反兴奋剂机构负责制定禁用物质清单的首席科学家艾琳·马佐尼说,当时她曾表示“由于在厨房发现的药物剂量极小,她很难相信污染说”。

But both scientists said they had no choice but to accept WADA’s decision because they could not disprove the Chinese claims.

但两位科学家都表示,他们别无选择,只能接受世界反兴奋剂机构的决定,因为他们无法反驳中国的说法。

Mr. Rabin “saw no other solution than to accept it, even if he continued to have doubts about the reality of contamination as described by the Chinese authorities,” according to the report.

根据该报告,拉宾认为“除了接受,别无选择,即使他仍然对中国当局所描述的受污染的真实性表示怀疑”。

The choice of Mr. Cottier to conduct the investigation drew criticism from the start. A former attorney general of Vaud, a Swiss region that for years has been the center of international sports as home to several governing bodies, he had close links to WADA and Olympic officials. He had been nominated to lead the investigation by the official who was in charge of auditing WADA’s intelligence and investigations department at the time the Chinese swimmers tested positive.

选择科蒂埃进行调查从一开始就招来了批评。科蒂埃曾任沃州总检察长,与世界反兴奋剂机构和奥林匹克官员关系密切。沃州是瑞士的一个地区,多年来一直是国际体育运动的中心,也是多个管理机构的所在地。在中国游泳运动员兴奋剂检测呈阳性时,负责审查世界反兴奋剂机构情报和调查部门的官员提名他领导调查。

The auditor, Jacques Antenen, served as Vaud’s police chief under Mr. Cottier when the latter was Vaud’s attorney general. In a telephone interview on May 3, Mr. Antenen said he had contacted Mr. Niggli, WADA’s most senior administrator, in the days after the disclosure of the positive tests to suggest that Mr. Cottier might be a good choice to lead any investigation.

审计员雅克·安特南曾在科蒂埃任沃州司法部长期间在科蒂埃手下担任沃州警察局长。在5月3日的电话采访中,安特南表示,兴奋剂检测结果呈阳性这一消息披露后的几天里,他曾联系过世界反兴奋剂机构最高级别的管理者尼格利,建议由科蒂埃来领导有关调查。

“I didn’t recommend him; I just said if you need someone, it’s a good choice,” Mr. Antenen said. He said he did not know if others had been considered for the role.

“我没有推荐他;我只是说,如果你需要人,这是个不错的选择,”安特南说。他说,他不知道该机构是否考虑过其他人来担任这个角色。

WADA reacted angrily when questions about Mr. Cottier’s independence were first raised, saying that “attempts to slur the integrity of a highly regarded professional just as he begins his work are getting more and more ridiculous and are designed to undermine the process.”

当人们首次对科蒂埃的独立性提出质疑时,世界反兴奋剂机构做出了愤怒的反应,称“一位备受推崇的专业人士刚刚开始工作,就有人试图诋毁他的诚信,这种做法越来越荒谬,其目的是破坏工作进程”。

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