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“五眼联盟”警告前战斗机飞行员不要帮助培训解放军

JULIAN E. BARNES, HELENE COOPER

2024年6月6日

中国的歼-20隐形战斗机,摄于2021年。西方情报官员称,中国已加大力度招募西方飞行员为中国军队做培训。 Aly Song/Reuters

For years, U.S. officials have accused China of stealing American technology to design and build fighter planes. But while China learned how to build advanced fighters, its pilots could not fly them so well.

多年来,美国官员一直指控中国为设计和制造战斗机窃取美国技术。虽然它已学会了如何制造先进战斗机,但中国的飞行员驾驶技巧不佳。

That may be starting to change, according to American officials.

这一情况可能正在开始改变,美国官员说。

U.S. and allied intelligence officials warned on Wednesday that Beijing was intensifying a campaign to entice former fighter pilots from Western nations to train Chinese pilots.

美国和盟国的情报官员周三警告,中国政府正在加紧吸引曾在西方国家驾驶战斗机的飞行员为中国做培训。

The United States, Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand — an intelligence-sharing partnership known as the Five Eyes — said in a bulletin that China’s People’s Liberation Army was trying to tap the “skills and expertise of these individuals” to improve its own air operations.

由美国、英国、加拿大、澳大利亚和新西兰组成的“五眼”情报共享伙伴关系在一份公告中称,中国人民解放军正在试图利用“这些人的技能和专业知识”来提高自己的空中作战能力。

“To overcome their shortcomings, China’s People’s Liberation Army has been aggressively recruiting Western military talent to train their aviators, using private firms around the globe that conceal their P.L.A. ties and offer recruits exorbitant salaries,” said Michael C. Casey, the director of the U.S. National Counterintelligence and Security Center.

“为了克服他们的短处,中国人民解放军一直在积极招募西方军事人才为他们培训飞行员,利用全球各地的私人公司来隐藏他们与解放军的关系,并为招募来的人提供高额薪水,”美国国家反情报与安全中心主任迈克尔·凯西说。

China has been building up its air and naval forces, and leaders in Beijing have warned that they could eventually be open to using force to unite their country with Taiwan. American officials, speaking on the condition of anonymity to discuss the findings, say there is little doubt that Chinese fighter pilots appear to be getting better.

中国一直在加强本国空军和海军的力量,中国领导人警告,他们最终可能会使用武力来统一台湾。要求不具名的美国官员在讨论上述公告时说,毫无疑问,中国战斗机飞行员的水平看来正在提高。

But officials debate how much of the improvement can be attributed to training by foreign pilots versus an increase in hours that Chinese pilots are logging in homegrown training programs.

但这种进步在多大程度上应该归因于外国飞行员的培训,还是应该归因于中国飞行员参加本土训练项目的飞行时间增加,官员们对此目前持有分歧。

Officials say China’s efforts to entice pilots to train the People’s Liberation Army stretch back years but have intensified. Britain issued a warning in September after it strengthened laws against training foreign pilots

官员们说,中国吸引西方飞行员为解放军做培训的努力已经延续了多年,但近年来有所加强。英国加强了针对培训外国飞行员的法律后,曾在去年9月发出警告。

American officials said the Chinese military has set up a number of nominally independent training centers in several countries, including South Africa, Kenya, Laos, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. They say the recruited pilots have been offered the chance to fly in a variety of exotic and advanced planes and paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for their services.

美国官员说,中国军方已在多个国家设立了一些名义上独立的训练中心,包括在南非、肯尼亚、老挝、马来西亚、新加坡和泰国等国家。他们说,被这些中心招募来的飞行员有机会驾驶各种奇特且先进的飞机,支付给他们的报酬高达数十万美元。

While the pilots may not initially know they are training the Chinese military, it quickly becomes apparent, according to officials briefed on the findings.

据了解上述调查的官员所说,虽然被招募来的飞行员最初可能不知道他们是在为中国军队做培训,但这一点很快会变得很明显。

Officials would not say how many allied pilots have been involved in training the Chinese military, but American officials said it was easily in the dozens. Britain has reported that at least 30 former British pilots have trained the Chinese military. Three Canadian former pilots, seven from New Zealand and a group from Germany have also been accused of training China’s military.

虽然官员们不愿透露有多少盟军飞行员参与了为中国军队做培训的工作,但美国官员称,起码有数十人。英国的报道称,至少有30名前英国飞行员为中国军队做过培训。三名加拿大的前飞行员、七名新西兰飞行员,以及德国的一组飞行员也被指控为中国军队做培训。

In addition to the centers in other countries, training has also occurred in China, according to American officials. In 2022, a Chinese fighter plane crashed and the pilots ejected. In a videotape of the incident, one of the pilots on the ground is a Westerner speaking English.

美国官员称,这些培训除了在中国境外的中心进行外,也在中国境内进行。2022年,一架中国战斗机坠毁,飞行员弹射逃生。在该事件的录像中,地面上的飞行员中有一名讲英语的西方人。

In September, Gen. Charles Q. Brown Jr., then the head of the U.S. Air Force but who later became the chairman of the Joint Chiefs, warned American aviators against assisting the Chinese. “The People’s Liberation Army wants to exploit your knowledge and skill to fill gaps in their military capability,” he wrote in a memo to Air Force service members.

去年9月,时任美国空军司令员、后来出任参谋长联席会议主席的查尔斯·布朗空军四星上将曾对美国飞行员为中国人提供帮助发出警告。“中国人民解放军想利用你们的知识和技能来填补他们军事能力上的空白,”他在给空军服役人员的备忘录中写道

Teaching advanced warfighting skills to foreign nationals can quickly bring legal action. In addition to banning weapons sales, the Arms Export Control Act also prohibits training of foreign militaries without the permission of the U.S. government.

向外国人传授先进的作战技能可以很快招致法律诉讼。美国的《武器出口管制法》除了禁止武器销售外,还禁止未经政府许可为外国军队做培训。

The United States has been trying to bring a former Marine pilot, Daniel Duggan, to trial on charges that he trained Chinese pilots.

美国一直希望将前海军陆战队飞行员丹尼尔·杜根送上法庭,指控他为中国培训飞行员。

Mr. Duggan was indicted in 2017, on charges that he trained Chinese pilots in 2010 and 2012. But the indictment was not unsealed until 2022, when he was arrested in Australia. Mr. Duggan denies the accusation and has been fighting his extradition to the United States.

政府已在2017年起诉杜根,罪名是他在2010年和2012年为中国培训了飞行员。但直到2022年他在澳大利亚被逮捕时,起诉书才被公开。杜根否认这一指控,并一直在使用法律手段抗拒被引渡回美国。

Intelligence officials said the bulletin released on Wednesday was meant to deter current or former service members from engaging in training. Mr. Casey said such efforts would “put their military colleagues at risk and erode our national security.”

情报官员说,周三发布公告的目的是防止现役或退役军人参与这类培训。凯西说,这种做法将“让他们在军队的同事受到威胁,侵蚀我们的国家安全”。

American officials say China has not only tried to learn American and allied air tactics from former pilots. It has also stepped up surveillance of military exercises using drones, balloons and other technology, efforts that sometimes have led to reports of unidentified objects near military bases.

美国官员表示,中国不仅试图从退役飞行员那里学习美国和盟国的空中战术。它还加强了运用无人机、气球和其他技术来监视军事演习的努力,这些努力有时引发了在美国军事基地附近发现不明飞行物的报道。

Pentagon officials have attributed some puzzling sightings of unidentified objects to relatively ordinary drone technology. They say surveillance, by drones and balloons, is part of Beijing’s effort to learn more about how American fighter planes fly off aircraft carriers and conduct operations.

五角大楼官员已将一些令人费解的不明飞行物目击事件归因于相对普通的无人机技术。他们说,使用无人机和气球进行监视是中国政府为更多地了解美国战斗机如何从航空母舰上起飞、执行空中任务所进行的努力的一部分。


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