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出门必备,科学背包指南

2022-12-07

无论平时上学上班,还是假期购物玩耍,出门常要拿个包。从第一次背书包上学到现在,你换过多少种背法?双肩、单肩、挂在小臂上、拿在手里,或者干脆把东西塞进裤袋?

不同的拿包方式,包的重量,带子的长短、角度和物品摆放,都影响身体姿势和费力程度。多年的错误拿包姿势,可能是你肩、颈、腰背痛的原因,也可能把身体姿态带跑偏。以下是健康人的拿包指南,相关疾病患者请遵从医生建议。

本来站得挺直,背上包就歪了丨作者供图

最重要的是,轻

包的总重量越轻越好,尽量不要超过体重的10%,至多20%。相对瘦弱的人,更需要减轻负担[1-3]。

因为不管怎么拿,包的重量越大身体就越歪。不仅头前伸、身体前倾的角度变大,脊椎中间的椎间盘也会被压得更扁。这些会增加脊柱周围组织及下肢关节的压力,导致各处疼痛以及关节的损伤[4-6]。

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背包变重,头前伸,身体前倾丨作者供图

如果要带的东西实在太重,就改用箱子装。同等重量下,拉或推箱子时身体姿态比背包好,所以舒服也省力,尤其是需要站着久等的情况(箱子拉杆够长,站直能拉住)。但路途中坡道及台阶多的时候,背包比拎箱子更轻松[7-9]。

拉箱子时身体姿态更好丨作者供图

别嫌弃双肩背包,健康

除了重量,背包的方式对身体影响最大。有人嫌弃双肩背包丑,但两侧对称的姿势比单肩背健康。

双侧比单侧好

单侧拿时,偏在一边的包会把身体拉偏,造成脊柱侧弯及高低肩,腿部受力也不均衡,容易出现头、肩颈、腰背及下肢关节疼痛。同样重量的包,改为双肩背可以明显减少这些不舒服[4, 10-15]。

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双肩背包身体左右对称,单肩背包身体歪斜丨作者供图

前后交替,走路背后面

常有人为了拿东西方便或安全,把双肩背包挂在胸前。这样不容易弯腰驼背,但比背在后面时身体后仰更多,腰部压力更大。背包站立时间长的时候,可以前后交替,但走动的时候,还是背在身后更舒服[11, 16-20]。

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背在后面身体前倾,包在前面身体后倾丨作者供图

肩带宽软,间距窄小

背包时的肩痛,常与肩带有关。宽且有填充物的软带比较舒服。两个肩带之间的距离不能太大,角度最好在48°~60°,间距或角度过大会增加肩部压力,可能引起肩痛[19, 21, 22]。

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左图肩带距离及角度合适,右图角度过大丨pixabay, pxfuel

让包的中心高度齐腰

调整肩带时,首先保证两侧长度一致,然后根据身高调整肩带长短,使包的中心在腰部。如果肩带过短,把包背在上背部,可能肩颈难受、呼吸不顺畅。肩带过长,包放在臀部的话,腰容易不舒服,而且走路时包会晃动,更加费力[2, 3, 19-24]。

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左图背包太高,中图适中,右图稍低丨作者供图

如果背包有腰带,系紧它能将肩压力减轻近三分之一,并让背包在步行中更加稳定[2, 25]。

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系紧腰带更轻松丨nps.gov

非得单侧,尽量肩背不要手拿

偏要单侧拿包的话,背在肩上更好。因为包挂在前臂或拿在手里时,人会不自觉地更驼背、身体晃动更多,这样不舒服也走不稳[11, 26]。

单肩背包时,可以把肩带调长,斜跨着背,这样比背在一侧好[14]。如果不能斜跨,就把肩带调短些,这样走起路来身体左右两侧更平衡[27]。

斜跨比单侧背更好丨作者供图

有时出门只带手机和钥匙就够了,这时不拿包,全部放在衣裤口袋也可以。但带更重东西的时候,还是背包省力些[6, 28]。运动的时候,把手机放在腰包,也比臂包更舒服。

包里的物品,不要随便塞

往包里装东西的时候,需要格外注意重物的位置。首先,尽量把最重的物品固定在离身体最近的地方,比如把电脑插进贴近背部的分隔里,不要让它滑到包的后面。只要包里物品的重心前移5厘米,肩部压力就会明显降低[2, 17, 21]。

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电脑随意放置,重心偏后,固定在分隔中更省力丨作者供图

其次是重物的高度,站立不动或走平路时,把重物放在背包里偏上的位置比较省力。但上下坡道或台阶时,把重的东西放在包里的中下位置,可以走得更稳[28-30]。

购物袋,尽量均分两手拿

从超市买了很多东西,放不进背包时,尽量分成两个袋子装,把重量均分到两只手上。

如果只用右手提,走路时左腿受力就会明显大于右腿,关节容易受到损伤,上下台阶时影响更大。另外,同样重量的东西,单手拎时脊柱所受压力大于双手,椎间盘更易受损[13]。

两只手提购物袋,比单手好丨作者供图

最后,无论怎样拿包,都记得保持核心稳定,把身体摆正。

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稳住核心,摆正身体丨作者供图

参考文献

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[2] Mackie HW, Stevenson JM, Reid SA, Legg SJ. The effect of simulated school load carriage configurations on shoulder strap tension forces and shoulder interface pressure. Appl Ergon. 2005;36(2):199–206.

[3] Grimmer K, Dansie B, Milanese S, Pirunsan U, Trott P. Adolescent standing postural response to backpack loads: a randomised controlled experimental study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2002;3:10.

[4] Fowler NE, Rodacki AL, Rodacki CD. Changes in stature and spine kinematics during a loaded walking task. Gait Posture. 2006;23(2):133–141.

[5] Shymon S, Hargens AR, Minkoff LA, Chang DG. Body posture and backpack loading: an upright magnetic resonance imaging study of the adult lumbar spine. Eur Spine J. 2014;23(7):1407–1413.

[6] Seay JF. Biomechanics of Load Carriage--Historical Perspectives and Recent Insights. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29 Suppl 11:S129–S133.

[7] Orantes-Gonzalez E, Heredia-Jimenez J, Beneck GJ. Children require less gait kinematic adaptations to pull a trolley than to carry a backpack. Gait Posture. 2017;52:189–193.

[8] Orantes-Gonzalez E, Heredia-Jimenez J. Gait asymmetry and rating of perceived exertion: How are they influenced by carrying a backpack and pulling a trolley? Work. 2019;63(2):253-259.

[9] Orantes-Gonzalez E, Heredia-Jimenez J, Robinson MA. A kinematic comparison of gait with a backpack versus a trolley for load carriage in children. Appl Ergon. 2019;80:28-34.

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作者:代天医

编辑:odette

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本文来自果壳,未经授权不得转载.

如有需要请联系[email protected]

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