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北约首次公开谴责中国为俄罗斯提供军事支持

DAVID E. SANGER

2024年7月11日

北约成员国政府首脑周三在华盛顿举行的峰会上。 Eric Lee/The New York Times

After decades of viewing China as a distant threat, NATO on Wednesday accused Beijing of becoming “a decisive enabler of Russia’s war against Ukraine,” and demanded that it halt shipments of “weapons components” and other technology critical to the rebuilding of the Russian military.

几十年来,北约一直将中国视为一个遥远的威胁,但在周三,它指责北京成为“俄罗斯对乌克兰战争的决定性助推者”,要求中国停止向俄罗斯运送“武器部件”和其他对重建俄罗斯军队至关重要的技术。

The statement is contained in a declaration approved by the 32 leaders of the alliance, shortly before they headed to a dinner at the White House on Wednesday night. It is a major departure for NATO, which until 2019 never officially mentioned China as a concern, and then only in the blandest of language.

该声明包含在北约32位领导人周三晚上前往白宫参加晚宴前不久批准的一份声明中。这对北约来说是一个重大的转变,直到2019年,北约才正式提到中国是一个担忧,而且仅用最为温和的措辞。

Now, for the first time, the alliance has joined in Washington’s denunciations of China’s military support for Russia.

现在,北约第一次加入华盛顿的行列,谴责中国对俄罗斯的军事支持。

But the declaration contains an implicit threat that China’s growing support for Russia will come at a cost. China “cannot enable the largest war in Europe in recent history without this negatively impacting its interests and reputation,” the declaration said, particularly calling out “its large-scale support for Russia’s defense industrial base.”

但宣言中隐含的威胁是,中国对俄罗斯日益增长的支持将令它付出代价。声明称,中国“在为欧洲近期历史上最大规模的战争赋能时,其利益和声誉不可能不受到负面影响”,并特别指出“中国对俄罗斯国防工业基础的大规模支持”。

The NATO declaration did not specify what those costs would be, although the natural first step would be economic sanctions that barred China from parts of global markets.

北约的宣言没有具体说明这些代价是什么,不过第一步自然是对中国实施经济制裁,禁止中国进入部分全球市场。

Even a year ago, European leaders were hesitant to challenge Beijing, especially nations like Germany that view China as a critical market for high-end cars and luxury goods.

就在一年前,欧洲领导人还在犹豫是否要挑战北京,尤其是像德国这样将中国视为高端汽车和奢侈品重要市场的国家。

Many European leaders initially dismissed the agreement reached in early 2022, just before the Beijing Olympics, for a “partnership without limits” signed by President Vladimir V. Putin and President Xi Jinping. Even President Biden said he had his doubts that the two countries, with a long history of enmity, could work together. In March 2023, during a trip to Canada, he said, “I think we vastly exaggerate” the partnership.

2022年初,就在北京冬奥会前夕,普京总统和习近平主席签署了一项“没有止境”的伙伴关系协议,许多欧洲领导人起初对它不屑一顾。就连拜登总统也表示,他怀疑这两个有很长一段时间相互敌对的国家能否合作。2023年3月,在访问加拿大期间,他说,“我认为我们大大夸张了”这种伙伴关系。

“I’ve been hearing now for the past three months about ‘China is going to provide significant weapons to Russia and they’re gonna’ — a lot of talk about that,” Mr. Biden added. “They haven’t yet. Doesn’t mean they won’t, but they haven’t yet.”

“过去三个月来,我一直听到有人说,‘中国将向俄罗斯提供大量武器,他们会这么做的’,很多人都在谈论这个问题,”拜登说。“他们还没有。这并不意味着他们不会,但他们还没有。”

But 29 months after the invasion of Ukraine, that view has changed drastically. While China has heeded warnings not to supply Russia with full weapons systems, it has done everything short of that, providing computer chips, advanced software and the components needed for Russia to rebuild a defense industrial base that churned out faulty and outdated equipment.

但在俄罗斯入侵乌克兰29个月后,这种观点发生了巨大变化。尽管中国听从了不要向俄罗斯提供完整武器系统的警告,但是除此之外,它做了所有事,提供了计算机芯片、先进软件和零部件,这些都是原本只能大量生产有缺陷和过时设备的俄罗斯国防工业基地进行重建时所需要的。

The intelligence evidence was provided to NATO countries by the Biden administration, in an effort to win over skeptics who argued that China was not a central player in the war. That succeeded, but only after the United States published the names, in a Treasury Department economic sanctions order, of Chinese front companies and manufacturers that were funneling the technology to Russia.

这些情报证据是拜登政府提供给北约国家的,目的是说服那些认为中国不是这场战争核心角色的怀疑论者。这一行动取得了成功,但是在美国财政部的经济制裁令公布了向俄罗斯输送技术的中国幌子公司和制造商的名单之后才得以实现的。

“The declaration demonstrates that NATO allies now collectively understand this challenge and are calling on the P.R.C. to cease this activity,” Jake Sullivan, Mr. Biden’s national security adviser, said on Wednesday afternoon, referring to the People’s Republic of China. “If this P.R.C. support continues, it will degrade its relations across Europe, and the United States will continue to impose sanctions on P.R.C. entities involved in this activity, in coordination with our European allies.”

“这份声明表明,北约盟国现在共同理解了这一挑战,正在呼吁中华人民共和国停止这种活动,”拜登的国家安全顾问杰克·沙利文周三下午表示。“如果中国的这种支持继续下去,它将削弱与欧洲各国的关系,美国将与我们的欧洲盟友协调,继续对参与这种活动的中国实体实施制裁。”

The declaration also blames China for “malicious cyber and hybrid activities, including disinformation” aimed at the United States and Europe.

声明还指责中国针对美国和欧洲的“恶意网络和混合活动,包括虚假信息”。

China has denied that it is a major factor in the war and Chinese officials have, publicly and privately, accused Washington of deep hypocrisy, noting the tens of billions of dollars in ammunition, missile systems, tanks and soon F-16 jets that the United States is giving to Ukrainian fighters.

中国否认自己在这场战争起到重要作用,中国官员公开和私下都指责华盛顿极度虚伪,指出美国正在向乌克兰军队提供价值数百亿美元的弹药、导弹系统、坦克,很快还会提供F-16战机。

In May, when American sanctions were imposed, Wang Wenbin, a spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry, called the U.S. accusations “hypocritical and highly irresponsible.” But he did not deny the specifics.

今年5月,在美国实施制裁后,中国外交部发言人汪文斌称美国的指责“极其虚伪,也十分不负责任”。但他没有否认具体细节。

The standoff over China’s role in Ukraine is threatening to unwind whatever good will Mr. Biden developed with Mr. Xi when they met in November in California. At the time, Mr. Biden warned him privately about interfering in the 2024 presidential election, but the evidence was not yet available that China was becoming a major force, alongside Iran and North Korea, in supplying the Russian war effort.

不论拜登与习近平去年11月在加利福尼亚州会面时释出了怎样的善意,都可能因为中国在乌克兰问题上的角色而受到影响。当时,拜登私下警告习近平不要干涉2024年的总统选举,但当时还没有证据表明,中国正与伊朗和朝鲜一道,成为支持俄罗斯战争的主要力量。

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