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台湾邦交国帕劳遭黑客攻击,是否出于政治原因?

JACOB JUDAH

2024年6月3日

2022年,帕劳总统萨兰格尔·惠普斯(右)在访问台湾期间与时任台湾总统蔡英文会面。帕劳是世界上少数几个承认台湾是独立民主国家的国家之一。 Ann Wang/Reuters

Palau, a clump of about 350 small islands in the Pacific Ocean, has become increasingly important to the United States as China tries to build clout in the Indo-Pacific. This year, Washington finalized a long-delayed plan to give Palau hundreds of millions of dollars in aid over two decades.

帕劳是太平洋上由大约350个小岛组成的岛群,随着中国试图在印度洋-太平洋地区建立影响力,帕劳对美国的重要性与日俱增。今年,华盛顿敲定了一项拖延已久的计划,将在20年内向帕劳提供数亿美元的援助。

Hours before diplomats gathered at the U.S. Embassy in Palau to toast the agreement, the island nation was hit by an enormous cyberattack. More than 20,000 documents were stolen from the government.

就在外交官们聚集在美国驻帕劳大使馆为协议干杯的几个小时前,这个岛国遭受了一次大规模网络攻击。2万多份政府文件被盗。

A few weeks later, in April, they appeared on the dark web. There was a presentation about a U.S. radar installation on Palau marked, “For Official Use Only.” There were crew lists of Japanese Navy ships that had visited Palau. And there were hundreds of documents detailing the close relationship between Palau and Taiwan.

几周后,也就是4月,它们出现在了暗网上。其中有一份关于美国在帕劳安装雷达的介绍,标注着“仅供官方使用”。还有访问过帕劳的日本海军舰艇的船员名单,以及数以百计详细描述帕劳和台湾的密切关系的文件。

Palau is one of the few countries in the world that recognize Taiwan as an independent democracy. The leaders of Palau say the hack was orchestrated by China, which claims Taiwan as its territory, and was meant to send a message. Beijing has enticed other countries, like Nauru, another Pacific nation, to sever ties with Taipei.

帕劳是世界上承认台湾为独立民主国家的少数国家之一。帕劳领导人称,这次黑客攻击是由声称台湾是其领土的中国策划的,目的是传达信息。北京已诱使其他国家断绝与台北的关系,另一个太平洋国家瑙鲁就是一个例子。

China rejected the accusation, and experts say that Palau has not presented any evidence that implicates Beijing. A ransomware group known as DragonForce has claimed responsibility, saying it carried out the hack purely for financial gain. The group has threatened to do more harm to Palau.

中国否认了这一指控,专家表示帕劳没有拿出任何牵涉到中国政府的证据。一个名为“龙之力”(DragonForce)的软件勒索组织声称对此事负责,称其进行黑客攻击纯粹是为了经济利益。该组织威胁要对帕劳造成更多伤害。

00palau mptc master1050帕劳最大的城镇科罗尔。该群岛对美国的军事设施和航道至关重要,一旦发生冲突,这些设施和航道将用于保卫台湾。

Whatever the motivation, the breach presents a danger to the United States. Hackers could use the information gleaned from it to tailor more sophisticated phishing attacks, experts said. And regardless of whether DragonForce was acting alone, the episode is another reminder of the threat of mercenary hackers.

无论其动机如何,这次泄露事件都对美国构成了风险。专家称,黑客可能会利用从中获取的信息来定制更复杂的网络钓鱼攻击。不管“龙之力”是否单独行动,这一事件再次让人们注意到受雇黑客的威胁。

Officials in Palau, which hosts U.S. military installations and occupies crucial shipping lanes that would be used to defend Taiwan in a conflict, say the attack was politically driven and that China was involved.

帕劳是美国军事设施的所在地,占据着重要的航道,一旦发生冲突,这些航道将被用来保卫台湾。帕劳官员称,这次袭击是出于政治目的,并且有中国参与其中。

“Everything points in that direction,” President Surangel Whipps Jr. of Palau said in an interview. “It is unfortunate that China would do things like this,” he said, adding Palau’s relationship with Taiwan remained “stronger than ever.”

“一切都指向这个方向,”帕劳总统萨兰格尔·惠普斯在接受采访时表示。“很遗憾中国会做这种事,”他说,还表示帕劳与台湾的关系“比以往任何时候都更加牢固”。

In a statement, China’s Foreign Ministry said, “It is extremely irresponsible for Palau to jump to conclusions and make unfounded accusations and smears against China without valid evidence.”

中国外交部在一份声明中表示:“帕劳在没有有效证据的情况下妄下结论,对中国进行无端指责和抹黑,是极其不负责任的行为。”

Lying about 550 miles east of the Philippines, Palau was administered by the United States in the decades after World War II. It became independent in 1994 but has maintained close ties with Washington through an agreement known as “free association.” This gives Palauans the right to work, live and study in the United States, which funds the local government and gets military access to the archipelago of about 20,000 people. Its nearest neighbors, Micronesia and the Marshall Islands, have a similar relationship with the United States.

帕劳位于菲律宾以东约885公里处,在“二战”后的几十年里由美国管理。帕劳于1994年独立,但通过一项名为《自由联合》的协议与华盛顿保持着密切联系。这使得帕劳人有权在美国工作、生活和学习,而美国则为当地政府提供资金,并让军队进入这个约有两万人口的群岛。帕劳的近邻密克罗尼西亚和马绍尔群岛与美国也有类似的关系。

Palau is set to receive about $900 million in aid from the United States over two decades. But the monthslong delay in the approval of the agreement had raised fears that China could wrestle an advantage in the region.

帕劳将在20年内从美国获得约9亿美元的援助。但该协议的批准被拖延了数月之久,这引发了人们对中国可能在该地区夺取优势的担忧。

Taiwan also gives financial aid to Palau, and some of the leaked documents showed how it had financed Palau’s presence at international forums such as the United Nations and the COP climate summits. Taiwan is excluded from these gatherings because of objections from Beijing.

台湾也向帕劳提供经济援助,部分泄露文件显示了台湾是如何资助帕劳出席联合国和气候峰会等国际论坛的。由于北京的反对,台湾被排除在这些会议之外。

00palau gwtz master1050惠普斯指责北京干涉帕劳内政。

While most countries treat Taiwan as a sovereign state, very few officially recognize it as one. The United States has described its ties with Taiwan as a “robust unofficial relationship.” When asked to comment on the breach in Palau, a Pentagon spokeswoman referred questions to U.S. Cyber Command, which declined to comment.

虽然大多数国家都将台湾视为主权国家,但很少有国家正式承认台湾。美国将其与台湾的关系描述为“稳固的非官方关系”。当被要求对帕劳的文件泄露事件发表评论时,五角大楼发言人表示此事应询问美国网络司令部,但后者拒绝置评。

The leaked documents could also pose a risk for other countries. They include diplomatic communications with countries such as Japan, Israel and the U.S. going back to the mid-2000s. Identification details of the high-ranking Japanese military officials, some U.S. troops and a Saudi Arabian diplomatic delegation were also posted online.

泄露的文件也可能对其他国家构成风险。文件中包括自2000年代中期以来与日本、以色列和美国等国的外交通讯。日本高级军官、一些美国士兵和一个沙特阿拉伯外交代表团的身份信息也被发布在网上。

“It could affect Japan and Taipei, if they are not careful,” said Hideyuki Shiozawa, a former Japanese diplomat and a Pacific expert at the Sasakawa Peace Foundation in Tokyo, referring to poor cybersecurity in the Pacific Islands.

“如果不小心,可能会影响日本和台北,”前日本外交官、东京笹川和平基金会太平洋问题专家盐泽英之表示,他指的是太平洋岛屿欠佳的网络安全状况。

The hack, one Palauan official said, was political because DragonForce had made no effort to negotiate a ransom. Additionally, by using a ransomware group, Beijing reduced the risk of a diplomatic incident with Washington, according to the official, Jay Anson, the chief information security officer at the Palau Ministry of Finance.

一名帕劳官员表示,此次黑客攻击是出于政治目的,因为“龙之力”并未试图协商赎金。此外,据帕劳财政部首席信息安全官杰·安森称,通过利用勒索软件组织,北京降低了与华盛顿发生外交事件的风险。

“We assessed that they must be getting paid by someone else to make this lucrative,” said Mr. Anson, whose ministry was the one the documents were stolen from. “It was about politics, not payment.”

“我们评估,他们一定是从别人那里收了钱,才能从中获利,”安森说,这些文件就是从他的部门窃取的。“这是政治问题,而不是付款问题。”

Experts said that Palau could have been targeted by China, but it would be unusual to subcontract out a cyberattack to a ransomware group.

专家表示,帕劳或许会是中国的目标,但将网络攻击外包给勒索软件组织并不常见。

Jon DiMaggio, a former U.S. intelligence community analyst who now is the chief security strategist at the cybersecurity firm Analyst1, said he had seen the documents, and those related to Taiwan could be of interest to China. He said Palau officials had not shared details with experts to support the allegations. But he added that one reason for a state actor to use a group like DragonForce, instead of covert espionage, would be to publicly embarrass the target.

前美国情报界分析师、现任网络安全公司Analyst1首席安全策略师的乔恩·迪马乔表示,他看过这些文件,与台湾有关的文件可能引起中国的兴趣。他说,帕劳官员没有与专家分享能支持这些指控的细节。但他补充说,国家行为者使用“龙之力”这样的组织,而不是通过秘密间谍活动的一个原因是为了公开羞辱目标。

“If they had used a ransomware group as a contractor, there would have to be a motivation there, because they know that this would be loud and visual,” he said. “It is possible — if they intentionally wanted to make that point.”

“如果他们使用勒索软件组织作为承包商,那一定有动机,因为他们知道这会造成很大反应,而且会很明显,”他说。“这是有可能的——如果他们有意要强调这一点的话。”

00palau wmfq master1050惠普斯(左三)于2022年在华盛顿与拜登总统出席太平洋岛国峰会。此次网络攻击可能对帕劳的盟友美国构成风险。

Allan Liska, an analyst at the cybersecurity firm Recorded Future, also said that Palau needed to share more details to convince him and others of its interpretation, but agreed that this motivation was possible. “If your goal is propaganda, then the hack and leak nature of ransomware lends itself well to that,” he added.

网络安全公司Recorded Future的分析师艾伦·利斯卡也表示,帕劳需要分享更多细节来说服他和其他人相信这一解读,但他同意这种动机是可能的。“如果你的目的是宣传,那么勒索软件的入侵以及泄露文件的性质就非常适合宣传,”他补充道。

Mr. Whipps also accused Beijing of meddling in Palau’s domestic affairs, an accusation the Chinese ministry did not address in its statement. While he was a presidential candidate, he said, he received a phone call from the Chinese ambassador in Micronesia, who urged him to cut ties with Taiwan if elected.

惠普斯还指责北京干涉帕劳内政,中国外交部在声明中没有就这一点置评。他说,在还是总统候选人时,他曾接到中国驻密克罗尼西亚大使的电话,大使敦促他当选后与台湾断绝关系。

“He called me and said: ‘You’re a businessman. You understand the potential that China has? If you need a million tourists, we can give you a million tourists. We can build every hotel that you need. It is basic economics. We have 1.5 billion people, Taiwan has 22 million people,’” Mr. Whipps recalled.

“他打电话给我说:‘你是个商人。你了解中国的潜力吗?如果你需要一百万游客,我们可以给你一百万游客。我们可以建造你需要的每一家酒店。这是基础经济学。我们有15亿人口,台湾有2200万人,’”惠普斯回忆道。

Then, Mr. Whipps said, the ambassador accused Palau of illegal activity. Mr. Whipps asked what the activity was and, he said, the Chinese official replied, “You recognize Taiwan.”

惠普斯说,大使随后指责帕劳从事非法活动。惠普斯问他从事什么活动,他说,中国官员回答说:“你承认台湾。”

Olivia Wang和David Pierson自香香港、Julian Barnes自华盛顿对本文有报道贡献。

翻译:纽约时候中文网

点击查看本文英文版。

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