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拜登移民政策逆转,限制寻求庇护者入境美国

MICHAEL D. SHEAR

2024年6月5日

一名从墨西哥进入美国的移民。非法越境的人数达到了历史新高。 Paul Ratje for The New York Times

Looking for a way to shut down the southern border in 2018, President Donald J. Trump found a 73-word provision in the asylum law that he said gave him “magical authorities” to keep migrants out of the country.

2018年,为了关闭南部边境,特朗普总统在庇护法中找到了一条73个单词的条款,他说该条款赋予他将移民拒之门外的“神奇权力”。

President Biden turned to that same provision on Tuesday as he took executive action to temporarily close the border to asylum seekers, suspending longstanding guarantees that anyone who steps onto U.S. soil has the right to ask for protection in America.

拜登总统在本周二援引了同样的条款,他采取行政行动,暂时对寻求庇护者关闭了边境,暂停了长期以来关于任何踏上美国土地的人都有权在美国寻求保护的保证。

“The simple truth is, there is a worldwide migrant crisis,” Mr. Biden said in remarks at the White House, “and if the United States doesn’t secure our border, there’s no limit to the number of people who may try to come here.”

“这是个简单的事实——全球都面临移民危机,”拜登在白宫发表讲话说。“如果美国不保护我们的边境,那么试图来到这里的人数将是无穷无尽的。”

Mr. Biden’s announcement is a stunning reversal for a president and a party that spent years arguing that America was a country of immigrants. When President Barack Obama wanted to shore up his chances of re-election in 2012, he issued a sweeping executive order on immigration — one that allowed millions of immigrants to stay in the country legally.

对于多年来一直认为美国是移民国家的民主党以及总统本人来说,拜登的声明是惊人的逆转。2012年,当奥巴马总统希望增加连任的机会时,他发布了一项全面的移民行政命令,允许数以百万计的移民合法留在美国。

A dozen years later, with the number of people crossing the border illegally at historic highs, the next Democratic president moved entirely in the other direction. Critics say Mr. Biden is adopting the tactics of Mr. Trump and Stephen Miller, his immigration czar, to end asylum, even using the same clause in the Immigration and Nationality Act that Mr. Trump cited to justify a travel ban on Muslim countries.

十几年后,随着非法越境人数达到历史新高,奥巴马之后的下一任民主党总统完全转向了另一个方向。批评人士说,拜登正在采用特朗普和他的移民沙皇史蒂芬·米勒的策略来终止庇护,甚至使用了被特朗普的穆斯林国家旅行禁令引为依据的同一条《移民和国籍法》规定。

“Stephen Miller and Donald Trump peddled fear-based politics on immigration, and the Biden White House has decided to buy,” said Heidi Altman, the policy director at the National Immigrant Justice Center. She called it “a dangerous shift” that will “put the United States at odds with core values and commitments.”

“史蒂芬·米勒和唐纳德·特朗普在移民问题上兜售恐惧政治,现在拜登的白宫成了买家,”国家移民司法中心政策主管海蒂·奥特曼说。她称这是“一个危险的转变”,将会“使得美国与它的核心价值观和承诺背道而驰”。

For years, Democrats like Mr. Biden and his allies assailed Mr. Trump for his obsession with closing the border. Kamala Harris denounced him in 2017, saying that “we can’t turn our backs on the millions of refugees.” In 2018, Democratic lawmakers accused Mr. Trump of stoking “the fires of bigotry” by seeking an end to asylum. In 2020, Hakeem Jeffries, now the top Democrat in the House, called Mr. Trump the “Xenophobe. In. Chief.”

多年来,拜登等民主党人及其盟友一直在抨击特朗普执迷于关闭边境。卡玛拉·哈里斯在2017年对其进行了谴责,称“我们不能对数百万难民置之不理”。2018年,民主党议员指责特朗普寻求结束庇护的做法点燃了“偏执之火”。2020年,众议院民主党领袖哈基姆·杰弗里斯称特朗普是“仇外者首领”。

But the politics of immigration have shifted as record numbers of migrants have crossed into border communities and spread to cities far beyond. Mr. Biden has adjusted accordingly. Sensing that Americans want tougher policies, the president backed restrictive measures in bipartisan legislation this year. After Mr. Trump called on Republicans to kill that measure, Mr. Biden and his advisers felt compelled to find another way.

但是,随着创纪录数量的移民进入边境社区并且蔓延到更远的城市,移民政治发生了变化。拜登也做出了相应的调整。总统感觉到美国人希望采取更严厉的政策,他在今年支持两党立法中的限制性措施。在特朗普呼吁共和党人否决该法案后,拜登和顾问们不得不另寻出路。

The president has rallied many Democrats behind the approach, which he announced just hours before leaving Washington for a five-day visit to Paris for D-Day celebrations. Mr. Biden blames Republicans for standing in the way of broader efforts to overhaul the immigration system, and many mayors and governors in his party say the time has come to finally do something to address the surge of migration into their cities.

总统在离开华盛顿前往巴黎参加五天的诺曼底登陆日庆祝活动几个小时前宣布了该举措,得到了许多民主党人的支持。拜登指责共和党人阻碍了改革移民制度的更广泛努力。而民主党的许多市长和州长说,现在是时候采取行动解决涌入他们辖区的移民潮了。

The proclamation that Mr. Biden signed on Tuesday declared that asylum rights should be suspended whenever migration surged past a certain number. He then set the threshold low enough — at an average of 2,500 migrants each day — that the suspension would be prompted right away, starting at 12:01 a.m. on Wednesday.

拜登周二签署的公告宣布,只要移民人数超过一定数量,就应暂停庇护权。然后,他把这个数量的门槛定得足够低——平均每天2500名移民——该措施立即执行,从周三凌晨12:01开始。

In fact, that threshold has been exceeded almost every day for nearly a year, thanks to a wave of global migration fueled by climate change, economic instability and political violence around the world. And even though it is lower than the peak of 10,000 migrants last December, it remains far higher than the average of about 1,000 migrants each day a decade ago. The restrictions will not apply to minors who cross the border alone and a small number of people who legitimately fear being tortured or persecuted in their home country, officials said.

事实上,近一年来,由于气候变化、经济不稳定和世界各地的政治暴力引发全球移民浪潮,这一门槛几乎每天都在被超越。尽管低于去年12月每天1万移民的峰值,现在的移民人数仍远高于10年前每天约1000名移民的平均水平。官员们表示,这些限制不适用于单独越境的未成年人,以及少数有理由担心在本国受到酷刑或迫害的人。

Mr. Biden and the aides running his campaign are betting that voters will reward the president for newly aggressive efforts to limit the number of people crossing into the country illegally. They hope the move will relieve pressure on Democratic-led cities like New York and Denver, which are struggling to feed and house migrants.

拜登和竞选助手们押注选民们会因为总统为限制非法进入美国的人数所采取的积极措施而给予回报。他们希望此举将减轻民主党领导的纽约和丹佛等城市的压力,这些城市正在努力解决移民的食宿问题。

And they believe the actions will give Mr. Biden a potent retort to Mr. Trump and Republicans, who have long accused Democrats of being weak on the border.

他们认为,这些行动将使拜登对特朗普和共和党人形成有力回击,后者长期以来一直指责民主党在边境问题上软弱无力。

But the move is certain to inflame some of Mr. Biden’s supporters, too, especially those on the left who have already expressed frustration with the president on a range of other issues, like student loans and climate change.

但此举肯定也会激怒拜登的一些支持者,尤其是那些已经在学生贷款和气候变化等一系列其他问题上对总统表示不满的左翼人士。

Mr. Biden and his aides bristle at the accusation that they are following in Mr. Trump’s footsteps.

有人指责拜登及其助手正在步特朗普的后尘,拜登及其助手对此感到愤怒。

The president correctly notes that he has ruled out some of his predecessor’s extreme policies, such as separating children from their parents at the border to send a message to migrants that they should not come to the United States. On his first day in office, Mr. Biden proposed an immigration overhaul that would have provided a pathway to citizenship for millions of immigrants. Republicans refused to consider the proposal.

总统提到他摒弃了前任总统的一些极端政策,比如在边境将儿童与父母分开,从而向移民发出他们根本不应该来美国的信息,这一点是属实的。在上任的第一天,拜登就提出了一项移民改革方案,为数以百万计的移民提供获得公民身份的途径。共和党人拒绝考虑这一提议。

“I will never demonize immigrants,” Mr. Biden said at the White House on Tuesday. “I’ll never refer to immigrants as poisoning the blood of a country. And further, I’ll never separate children from their families at the border. I will not ban people from this country because of their religious beliefs.”

“我永远不会妖魔化移民,”拜登周二在白宫说。“我永远不会说移民毒害了一个国家的血液。此外,我永远不会在边境把孩子和家人分开。我不会因为人们的宗教信仰而禁止他们进入这个国家。”

But the new measures are a sharp crackdown.

但新措施是一种严厉的打击。

One measure included in the president’s proclamation on Tuesday prohibits migrants from entering the United States for five years — even through a legal pathway — if they have been caught trying to enter illegally while the president’s asylum ban is in place. Liberals have been fighting against such extended bans for decades.

总统周二发布的公告中包括一项措施,如果移民在总统庇护禁令实施期间试图非法进入美国而被抓获,那么他们在五年内不得进入美国——即使是通过合法途径。几十年来,自由派一直在反对这种长时间禁令的做法。

Mr. Biden has also reached the same conclusion as Mr. Trump and Mr. Miller when it comes to the source of their legal authority to take executive action to prevent migration.

在采取行政行动阻止移民的法律权力来源问题上,拜登也得出了与特朗普和米勒相同的结论。

Section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act reads: “Whenever the president finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or nonimmigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate.”

《移民和国籍法》第212(f)条规定:“当总统发现任何外国人或任何外国人群体进入美国会损害美国的利益时,他可以通过公告,在他认为必要的时期内,暂停所有外国人或任何类别的外国人作为移民或非移民进入美国,或对外国人的入境施加他认为适当的限制。”

Legal scholars have debated for years the meaning of those words. When the Supreme Court upheld Mr. Trump’s travel ban, Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. wrote that the provision “exudes deference to the president in every clause.” The American Civil Liberties Union said the court’s ruling in that case was wrong and “stands among its greatest failures, reminiscent of its decisions allowing the discriminatory incarceration of Japanese Americans.”

法律学者多年来一直在争论这些词的含义。当最高法院支持特朗普的旅行禁令时,首席大法官小约翰·罗伯茨写道,该条款“处处流露出对总统的遵从”。美国公民自由联盟表示,法院在该案中的裁决是错误的,“是其最大的失败之一,让人联想起它曾允许歧视性监禁日裔美国人的决定。”

In February, Mr. Miller said Mr. Trump should use the provision in a “muscular” way during a second term and called for it to be part of an effort to “establish a fortress position on the border and say no one can cross here at all.”

今年2月,米勒表示,特朗普应该在第二个任期内以“强硬”的方式使用该条款,并呼吁将其作为“在边境建立堡垒,声称绝对没有人可以越过这里”的行动的一部分。

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