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欧盟要求中国电动车企确保有能力支付税款

KEITH BRADSHER

2024年7月5日

中国主要的电动汽车制造商比亚迪积压在苏州太仓港准备运往欧洲的大量汽车,摄于今年2月。 Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The European Union took the next step on Thursday toward collecting new tariffs on Chinese electric cars, telling automakers to obtain guarantees from banks that they would be able to pay the taxes set to be made final in October.

周四,欧盟朝着对中国电动汽车征收新关税迈出了下一步,要求汽车制造商获得银行担保,确保它们有能力支付10月最终确定的税款。

The move was expected. The bloc had said on June 12 that it would impose additional tariffs of 17 to 38 percent on electric vehicles imported from China. An investigation by the European Union had found what officials in Brussels describe as unfair subsidies by the Chinese government for electric car manufacturers.

这是意料之中的一步。欧盟在今年6月12日表示,将对从中国进口的电动汽车加征17%至38%的关税。欧盟的一项调查发现了被欧盟官员描述为中国政府对电动汽车制造商提供不公平补贴的问题。

The Chinese government has denied that it subsidizes the industry. Beijing contends that low prices for electric cars made in China reflect vigorous competition and innovation instead.

中国政府否认对该行业进行了补贴。中国政府认为,本国制造的电动汽车价格低廉反映的是激烈的竞争和创新。

The two sides began talks on June 22 to try to resolve the dispute. “We are continuing to engage intensively with China on a mutually acceptable solution,” said Valdis Dombrovskis, the E.U. trade commissioner.

双方已于6月22日开始谈判,试图解决有关争端。“我们将继续与中国密切合作,寻求双方都能接受的解决方案,”欧盟贸易专员瓦尔迪斯·东布罗夫斯基斯说。

The imposition of provisional tariffs requires automakers to provide European countries with financial guarantees of eventual payment, although they do not need to send money yet.

暂行关税要求汽车制造商向欧洲国家提供最终付款的金融担保,尽管目前还不需要付款。

The provisional tariffs vary considerably by automaker based on the European Union’s estimates of the scale of each Chinese manufacturer’s government subsidies. The highest tariffs are being imposed on manufacturers that disclosed little about their subsidies, including a tariff of 37.6 percent on SAIC Motor. Lower tariffs apply to BYD, at 17.4 percent, and Geely, at 19.9 percent.

根据欧盟对每个制造商从政府获得补贴额度的估算,各车企被征收的暂行关税税率存在较大差异。对几乎不披露补贴情况的制造商征收的关税最高,比如对上汽集团征收37.6%的关税。对比亚迪和吉利征收的关税较低,分别为17.4%和19.9%。

Automakers will need to guarantee that they will be able to make payment for vehicles that arrive in the European Union starting Friday, for a period that runs through October. However, the bloc must still determine in the coming months if the subsidies for Chinese cars have caused significant harm in Europe’s car market.

汽车制造商们需要获得担保,确保它们能够支付从周五开始直至今年10月运入欧盟的汽车所加征的关税。但欧盟仍需要在未来几个月里确定中国政府对汽车制造商的补贴是否给欧洲汽车市场造成了显著伤害。

Worries are spreading among governments around the world that China is seeking to export its way out of economic difficulty as a housing market crash has made Chinese households less willing to spend. In May, President Biden quadrupled U.S. additional tariffs on Chinese electric vehicles, to 100 percent.

各国政府担心,随着房地产市场的崩溃导致中国家庭的消费意愿降低,它正寻求通过出口摆脱国内的经济困境。今年5月,拜登总统将美国对中国电动汽车加征的关税提高至以前的四倍,使税率达到100%。

Turkey imposed 40 percent additional tariffs last month on gasoline-powered and hybrid gasoline-electric cars imported from China. Turkey had already put additional tariffs last year on China’s electric cars. On Tuesday, Canada began a trade investigation that could also lead to tariffs on electric cars from China.

土耳其上个月对从中国进口的汽油驱动和油电混合动力汽车加征了40%的关税。土耳其去年已对中国的电动汽车加征了关税。周二,加拿大开启了一项贸易调查,也可能导致对来自中国的电动汽车加征关税。

Brazil is gradually raising tariffs on electric cars imported from any country starting this month, after a surge in imports from China early this year.

从中国进口的电动汽车数量今年初出现激增后,巴西从本月起逐步提高从所有国家进口的电动汽车关税。

China has threatened to retaliate against the European Union. Its Ministry of Commerce said on June 17 that it had opened an investigation into whether pork from the European Union was being dumped in China at unfairly low prices. The case could result in tariffs on dozens of products, from pork chops to pickled pig intestines.

中国威胁要对欧盟进行报复。中国商务部6月17日表示,已对来自欧盟的猪肉是否以不公平的低价倾销到中国展开调查,可能导致对从猪排到腌猪肠等数十种产品征收关税。

In January, the commerce ministry began a trade case against imports of Cognac and other European wine-based spirits that come mainly from France. The French government has been an early supporter of tariffs on electric cars from China.

今年1月,中国商务部对干邑白兰地和其他用葡萄酿制的欧洲烈酒的进口展开贸易调查,这些酒主要来自法国。法国政府在较早的时候就支持对中国电动汽车加征关税。

China’s car industry has suggested that the ministry impose tariffs on large gasoline-powered cars imported from the European Union if the bloc puts tariffs on electric cars. China has a 40 percent sales tax on cars and sport utility vehicles with very large gasoline engines, almost all of which are imported from North America or Europe.

中国汽车行业已建议商业部对从欧盟进口的大型汽油动力汽车加征关税,如果欧盟对中国电动汽车征收关税的话。中国对配备了大型汽油发动机的轿车和运动型多用途车征收40%的销售税,这些汽车几乎全部从北美或欧洲进口。

China also has a basic tariff of 15 percent on imported cars. Europe has a basic tariff for cars of 10 percent and the United States has a 2.5 percent tariff. The various tariffs now being drafted or imposed are in addition to these basic tariffs.

中国还对进口汽车征收15%的基本关税。欧洲对进口汽车征收的基本关税为10%,美国的基本关税为2.5%。目前正在起草或征收的各种汽车进口关税是在这些基本关税的基础之上。

China is returning to the playbook that it followed during its last big trade dispute with the European Union, in 2013 over China’s shipments of solar panels to Europe at low prices. Back then, Beijing persuaded Germany to lead a coalition of E.U. member countries that blocked solar panel tariffs.

中国正在重操上次与欧盟发生大的贸易争端时采用的策略,那次争端发生在2013年,针对的是中国以低价向欧洲出口太阳能电池板的问题。当时,中国政府说服德国带领一个欧盟成员国联盟阻止了欧盟对来自中国的太阳能电池板征收关税。

But it might be harder for China to stop the electric vehicle tariffs. Europe’s solar industry was decimated a decade ago after the union rescinded its tariffs. Few in Europe want electric car production to suffer a similar fate.

但对中国来说,阻止对电动汽车加征关税也许更难。十年前,欧盟取消了对中国太阳能电池板的关税后,当地的太阳能行业遭受了重创。欧洲几乎没有人想看到电动汽车行业遭遇同样的命运。

The European Union has also tightened its rules for countries to overturn tariffs. China would need to win over a majority of member countries in a final vote in October, and those countries would have to represent at least 65 percent of the bloc’s population.

欧盟也收紧了有关成员国推翻关税的规定。在今年10月的最终投票中,中国需要赢得半数以上成员国的支持,而且,这些国家的人口总合需要至少占欧盟人口的65%。

Member countries will also hold a preliminary vote in two weeks on whether they support the provisional tariffs. But the vote is not binding on the European Commission, the bloc’s executive body.

欧盟成员国还将在两周后对是否支持暂定关税举行初步投票。但投票结果对欧盟执行机构欧盟委员会不具有约束力。

Chinese automakers are starting to build factories in Europe to meet demand and avoid tariffs, following a strategy pioneered by Japanese automakers to bypass trade restrictions in the United States. “It’s just like what Toyota did in the 1980s,” said John Zeng, an analyst at GlobalData Automotive.

中国汽车制造商已开始在欧洲建厂以满足需求,避免关税,这是日本汽车制造商为绕过美国贸易限制最先采取的策略。“这很像丰田在20世纪80年代的做法,”GlobalData Automotive的分析师曾志凌说。

But China has a glut of car factories at home, with the capacity to build twice as many cars as are sold in China, which is the world’s largest car market.

但中国已在国内建了过多的汽车厂,它们的产能是国内汽车销量的两倍,中国是世界最大的汽车市场。

The trade case has produced a split in Europe’s car industry. German carmakers have opposed the tariffs. They face steeply declining sales in China as Chinese automakers have gained market share at their expense. So German carmakers are increasingly exporting from their factories in China, including to Europe.

有关汽车贸易的问题已在欧洲汽车行业引起分裂。德国汽车制造商反对对中国电动汽车加征关税。随着中国汽车制造商在国内市场的份额增加,德国汽车制造商的份额下降,它们面临着中国销量急剧下滑的问题。因此,德国汽车制造商正越来越多地将它们在中国工厂生产的汽车出口到海外,包括欧洲。

But auto parts manufacturers in Europe have tended to favor the imposition of tariffs, as big automakers like Volkswagen increasingly assemble cars from parts made by Chinese companies.

但欧洲的汽车零部件制造商倾向于对中国电动汽车加征关税,因为大众汽车等大型汽车制造商正在越来越多地使用中国公司生产的零部件组装汽车。


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