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“肮脏挑衅”:关于朝鲜投放的垃圾气球,你需要了解的

CHOE SANG-HUN

2024年6月4日

工作人员在首尔西部的一个购物中心收集朝鲜用气球送来的垃圾。 Yonhap, via EPA, via Shutterstock

North Korea launched 720 balloons across the world’s most heavily armed border overnight Saturday, hitting South Korea with their payloads: plastic bags full of cigarette butts and other trash.

周六夜间,朝鲜放飞了720个气球,它们穿越世界上戒备最为森严的边境线,载着装满烟头和其他垃圾的塑料袋打击韩国。

Since last Tuesday, North Korea has sent roughly 1,000 of these trash balloons across the Demilitarized Zone separating the two Koreas. Once​ the balloons reached South Korean airspace, ​their timers released the plastic bags containing assorted rubbish, including scraps of used paper and cloth.

自上周二以来,朝鲜已经向分隔朝韩两国的非军事区放出了大约1000个这样的垃圾气球。一旦气球到达韩国领空,定时装置就会释放装有废纸和用过的布等各种垃圾的塑料袋。

The South Korean military dismissed initial reports that the balloons were carrying human waste, but it did note that some of the trash appeared to be compost.

韩国军方否认了最初有关气球携带人类排泄物的报道,但韩军方的确指出其中一些垃圾似乎是堆肥。

​So far, the authorities in the South have found “nothing hazardous” in the payloads. On Sunday, the office of President Yoon Suk Yeol accused North Korea of “dirty provocations no normal country would think of.” It said South Korea would start taking “steps that North Korea would find unbearable.”

到目前为止,韩国当局在这些载荷中没有发现“任何危险”。周日,总统办公室尹锡悦指责朝鲜进行“任何正常国家都不会想到的肮脏挑衅”。声明称,韩国将开始采取“朝鲜无法忍受的措施”。

Its officials indicated that they might switch on their loudspeakers along the inter-Korean border to blare K-pop music, which the North’s leader, Kim Jong-un, has found so threatening that he once called it a “vicious cancer.”

韩国官员表示,他们可能会打开朝韩边境的扩音器,播放韩国流行音乐。朝鲜领导人金正恩认为这种音乐非常具有威胁性,曾称其为“恶性肿瘤”。

The North has cast the floating offensive as “tit-for-tat action.” It has accused North Korean defectors living in South Korea of “scattering leaflets and various dirty things” over its border counties in recent days.

朝鲜将这次气球攻势称为“针锋相对的行动”。朝鲜指责居住在韩国的脱北者近期在边境郡县“散发传单和各种肮脏的东西”。

Here’s what to know about the unusual offensive.

以下是关于这次不寻常的攻击需要知道的事情。

It has been unsettling but not disruptive.

它令人不安,但不具破坏性。

​When South Korea reports objects launched from North Korea, they are usually rockets carrying satellites or ballistic missiles of a kind the North says is capable of delivering nuclear warheads. But the North’s actions in the past week have been a revival of a Cold War era tactic: propaganda balloons as psychological warfare.

当韩国报告朝鲜发射了物体时,通常是指运载卫星的火箭,或朝鲜所称的能够运载核弹头的弹道导弹。但朝鲜在过去一周的行动是冷战时期战术的复兴:用宣传气球作为心理战手段。

Last week’s balloon offensive triggered some confusion and public complaints when the government mistakenly warned people near the border of an “air raid.”

上周的气球攻势引发了一些混乱和公众的抱怨,因为政府错误地向边境附近居民做出“空袭”警告。

Mostly South Koreans remained calm, treating the episode as little more than irritating antics from the North. On social media, people posted pictures of the North Korean balloons in trees, on farmland or on urban side streets bursting with trash. One plastic bag dropped from a balloon was heavy enough to destroy the windshield of a parked car, according to photos carried by local news media.

大多数韩国人保持着冷静,认为这不过是朝鲜招人烦的闹剧。人们在社交媒体上发布了朝鲜气球挂在树上、落在农田或是落在城市小巷,弄得垃圾到处都是的照片。当地新闻媒体刊登的照片显示,一个从气球上掉下来的塑料袋很沉,砸碎了一辆停放在某处的轿车的挡风玻璃。

02nkorea trash explainer2 mzvt master1050降落在韩国农田的一个朝鲜气球。

But there was an ominous undertone when South Korea urged people not to touch the balloons and to report them to the authorities immediately. North Korea is known to hold large stockpiles of biological and chemical weapons, which its agents once used to assassinate Mr. Kim’s estranged half brother, Kim Jong-nam.

但当韩国呼吁人们不要触摸气球,一经发现立即向当局报告时,却带有一种不祥的暗示。众所周知,朝鲜拥有大量生物和化学武器,朝鲜特工曾用这些武器暗杀同金正恩关系疏远的同父异母兄长金正男。

Photos and video footage released by the South Korean military on Sunday showed officers clad in biohazard and bomb-disposal gear inspecting the trash piles.

韩国军方周日公布的照片和视频显示,身穿生化和拆弹装备的军官正在检查垃圾堆。

The balloon rivalry goes back decades.

气球之争可以追溯到几十年前。

During the Cold War, North and South Korea waged psychological warfare. They tried to influence each other’s citizens with shortwave radio broadcasts laden with propaganda. Along the DMZ, loudspeakers bombarded rival soldiers day and night with propaganda songs. Billboards urged the soldiers to defect to a “people’s paradise” in the North or to the “free and democratic” South.

冷战期间,朝鲜和韩国进行了心理战。双方都试图通过短波广播的宣传来影响对方公民。沿着非军事区沿线,扩音器日夜不停地用宣传歌曲轰炸敌方士兵。标语牌敦促士兵叛逃到北方的“人民天堂”或“自由民主”的南方。

And the two Koreas launched leaflet-laden balloons into each other’s airspace. Millions of such leaflets vilifying the other side’s government were scattered over the Korean Peninsula, material that both Koreas banned their people from reading or keeping. In the South, the police rewarded children with pencils and other school supplies when they found the leaflets in the hills and reported them.

朝韩双方还向对方领空放飞装满传单的气球。成百上千万诋毁对方政府的传单散布在朝鲜半岛各地,朝韩双方都禁止本国人民阅读或保存这些材料。在韩国,如果孩子们在山上发现传单并上交,警察会奖励他们铅笔和其他学习用品。

But until fairly recently, balloons from North Korea seldom carried common trash.

但是,直到最近,来自朝鲜的气球很少携带普通垃圾。

A court decision allowed the balloons to fly again.

法院的裁决允许再次放飞气球。

By the 1990s, it was clear that the North’s propaganda was losing its relevance as the South’s economy pulled ahead. The South had become a vibrant democracy and a global export powerhouse, while the North suffered chronic food shortages and relied on a personality cult and a total information blackout to control its people.

到了20世纪90年代,很明显,随着韩国经济的发展,朝鲜的宣传渐渐失去意义。韩国成了一个充满活力的民主国家和全球出口大国,而朝鲜长期面临粮食短缺,依靠个人崇拜和全面信息封锁来控制人民。

When their leaders held the first inter-Korean summit meeting in 2000, the two Koreas agreed to end government-sponsored efforts to influence each other’s citizens. But North Korean defectors and conservative and Christian activists in the South carried on the information war, sending balloons laden with mini-Bibles, transistor radios, household medicine, computer thumb drives containing K-pop music and drama, and leaflets that called Mr. Kim a “pig.”

2000年,两国领导人举行了首次朝韩首脑会晤,双方同意停止政府支持的影响对方公民的活动。但是,脱北者以及韩国的保守派和基督教活动人士仍在进行信息战,他们放飞气球,上面装有迷你版《圣经》、晶体管收音机、家用药品、韩国流行音乐和电视剧的电脑U盘,以及将金正恩称为“猪”的传单。

To them, their payloads contained “truth” and “freedom of expression” that would help awaken North Koreans from their government’s brainwashing. To Pyongyang, they were nothing more than political “filth,” and North Korean leaders vowed to retaliate in kind.

对他们来说,他们装载的物品包含“真相”和“言论自由”,有助于唤醒被政府洗脑的朝鲜人。对平壤来说,它们只不过是政治“污秽”,朝鲜领导人发誓要以牙还牙

Then the government in Seoul enacted a law that banned the sending of leaflets to the North, saying they did little more than provoke Pyongyang. But a few years later, in 2023, a court ruled the law unconstitutional, and last month the activists resumed launching balloons.

随后,首尔政府颁布了一项法律,禁止向朝鲜散发传单,称其只会激怒平壤。但在几年后,2023年,法院裁定该法律违宪,上个月,活动人士恢复了放飞气球的活动。

“We have tried something they have always been doing, but I cannot understand why they are making a fuss as if they were hit by a shower of bullets,” Kim Yo-jong, Mr. Kim’s sister and spokeswoman, said last week. “If they experience how unpleasant the feeling of picking up filth is and how tired it is, they will know that it is not easy to dare talk about freedom of expression.”

“我们尝试了他们一直在做的事情,但我不明白他们为什么大惊小怪,好像挨了枪子一样,”金正恩的妹妹、发言人金与正上周说。“如果他们体验到捡脏东西的感觉有多不愉快,有多累,他们就会知道,敢于谈论言论自由并不容易。”

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