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诺曼底登陆80周年:新的战争阴云下,我们在纪念什么

ROGER COHEN

2024年6月7日

诺曼底美军公墓有9388座坟墓。

They were ordinary. The young men from afar who clambered ashore on June 6, 1944, into a hail of Nazi gunfire from the Normandy bluffs did not think of themselves as heroes.

他们是普通人。1944年6月6日,来自远方的年轻人在诺曼底悬崖上冒着纳粹的枪林弹雨爬上岸,他们并没有觉得自己是英雄。

No, said Gen. Darryl A. Williams, the commanding general of United States Army Europe and Africa, the Allied soldiers “in this great battle were ordinary,” youths who “rose to this challenge with courage and a tremendous will to win, for freedom.”

美国陆军欧洲和非洲司令达里尔·A·威廉姆斯将军说,不,“在这场伟大战役中”的盟军士兵“都是普通人”,他们都是“为了自由,带着勇气和巨大的必胜意志迎接挑战”的年轻人。

In front of the general, during a ceremony this week at Deauville on the Normandy coast, were 48 American survivors of that day, the youngest of them 98, most of them 100 years old or more. The veterans sat in wheelchairs. They saluted, briskly enough. Eight decades have gone by, many of them passed in silence because memories of the war were too terrible to relate.

本周,在诺曼底海岸多维尔举行的仪式上,48名当年的美国老兵站在将军面前,他们中最年轻的98岁,大多数人都已100岁或以上。老兵们坐在轮椅上,敬礼时动作轻快。八十年过去了,其中很多岁月都在沉默中度过,因为战争的记忆可怕到难以讲述。

When the 90th anniversary of D-Day comes around in 2034, there may be no more vets. Living memory of the beaches of their sacrifice will be no more.

到2034年,诺曼底登陆90周年到来时,可能已经没有“二战”老兵健在了。他们在海滩上牺牲的鲜活记忆也将不复存在。

“Dark clouds of war in Europe are forming,” General Williams said, as he alluded to allied determination to defend Ukraine against Russian attack. This 80th anniversary of the landings is a celebration, but a somber one. Europe is troubled and apprehensive, extremism eating at its liberal democracies.

威廉姆斯将军说:“战争的乌云正在欧洲形成,”他指的是盟军决心保卫乌克兰,抵御俄罗斯的进攻。这次登陆80周年的纪念是一次庆典,但也是沉痛的。欧洲惶惶不安,极端主义正侵蚀着它的自由民主国家。

For more than 27 months now, there has been a war on the continent that has taken hundreds of thousands of young Ukrainian and Russian lives. Russia was not invited to the commemoration even though the role of the Soviet Red Army in the defeat of Hitler was critical. A decade ago, President Vladimir V. Putin attended. Now he speaks of nuclear war. It is a time of fissuring and uncertainty.

27个多月以来,欧洲大陆上的这场战争夺走了成千上万乌克兰和俄罗斯青年的生命。尽管苏联红军在打败希特勒的战役中发挥了至关重要的作用,但俄罗斯却未受邀参加这场纪念活动。普京总统参加了十年前的纪念活动。现在,他却在谈论核战争。这是一个裂变和不确定的时代。

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Every one of the long-lived veterans who returned to Normandy knows where such drift can lead, how easy it is to sleepwalk toward conflagration.

每一位重返诺曼底的长寿老兵都知道这种转变会导致什么后果,在不知不觉中走向战火是多么容易。

“It’s between you and the higher-up,” said George K. Mullins, 99, a former staff sergeant in the 327th Glider Infantry Regiment of the 101st Airborne, as he recalled the day he came ashore at Utah Beach with a folding carbine hooked to his belt and two K-rations. “We know there’s a spirit somewhere.”

99岁的乔治·K·穆林斯曾是第101空降师第327滑翔机步兵团的上士,在犹他海滩上岸的那一天,他的腰带上挂着一把折叠式卡宾枪和两份K口粮。“那是你和上苍之间的事,”他回忆起那天时说,“我们知道神灵就在某一个地方”。

D-Day was not an end but a beginning. The Normandy campaign, zigzagging through the hedgerows that still divide fields today and teem in the sunlight with insect life, took a terrible toll.

诺曼底登陆不是结束,而是开始。诺曼底战役造成了惨重的损失。士兵们曾在篱笆中曲折穿行,这些篱笆至今仍分割着田野,昆虫在阳光下繁衍生息。

Sergeant Mullins, who now lives in Garberville, Calif., looked up from his foxhole a couple of days into the fighting and, two foxholes away, saw Pfc. William H. Lemaster, peeking over the edge. It proved to be the last act of this young man from West Virginia.

战斗开始几天后,现居住在加利福尼亚州加伯维尔的穆林斯中士从散兵坑中抬起头来,看到两个散兵坑外的一等兵威廉·H·莱马斯特从边缘探出头来。那是这位来自西弗吉尼亚州的小伙子的人生最后一幕。

A German sniper’s bullet cut through Private Lemaster’s head and killed him — a memory so vivid that Sergeant Mullins took a moment this week to kneel at his buddy’s grave in the American Cemetery in Colleville-sur-Mer.

一名德国狙击手的子弹穿过二等兵莱马斯特的头部,将他击毙,穆林斯中士对此记忆犹新,本周他特意来到位于科勒维尔河畔美军公墓的战友墓前跪拜。

There are 9,388 graves in the cemetery, most of them in the form of white Latin crosses, a handful of them Stars of David commemorating Jewish American service members. As antisemitism rises again in Europe, they seem somehow more conspicuous.

公墓里有9388座坟墓,其中大部分的造型是白色拉丁十字架,少数是纪念美国犹太军人的大卫之星。随着反犹太主义在欧洲再次抬头,这些标志显得更加显眼。

The Allied army did not advance to save the Jews of Europe — suggestions that the railroads to Auschwitz be bombed were rejected. But the end of the war in Europe 11 months after D-Day did bring an end to Hitler’s slaughter of six million Jews.

盟军并不是为了营救欧洲的犹太人而前进——轰炸通往奥斯威辛集中营的铁路的建议遭到了拒绝。但是,诺曼底登陆11个月之后欧洲战争的结束确实停止了希特勒对600万犹太人的屠杀。

Today, in Germany, Maximilian Krah, the top candidate for the extreme-right Alternative for Germany party in elections this weekend for the European Parliament, asserts that not all members of the Waffen SS, the Nazi paramilitary group, were criminals. Another AfD leader, Björn Höcke, was convicted last month of using a Nazi slogan.

今天,在德国,极右翼政党德国选择党的头号候选人马克西米利安·克拉在本周末举行的欧洲议会选举中声称,纳粹准军事组织武装党卫军的成员并非全都是罪犯。另一位德国选择党领导人比约恩·霍克上个月因使用纳粹口号而被定罪。

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“A far-right party that wears its historical revisionism on its sleeve has up to 20 percent support in polls,” said Jan-Werner Mueller, a politics professor at Princeton University. “I never thought I would see this in my lifetime. There seems to be no limit on how far the extreme right will go.”

“一个将历史修正主义挂在嘴边的极右翼政党在民意调查中的支持率高达20%,”普林斯顿大学政治学教授扬-维尔纳·穆勒说。“我从没想过在有生之年会看到这种情况。极右派的发展似乎没有止境。”

History may not repeat itself but it does rhyme, as Mark Twain is said to have noted.

相传马克·吐温说过,历史也许不会重演,但它会押韵。

Here in Normandy, the thousands who died as the Allies secured a toehold in Europe are everywhere, their black-and-white photographs attached to wooden utility poles on the Road of the First (American) Division that leads from Colleville-sur-Mer down to Omaha Beach. In their youthful expressions, innocence and hope predominate. Roland Barthes, the French essayist, observed that in every old photograph lurks catastrophe.

在诺曼底,数千名为了让盟军在欧洲建立一个小小立足点而丧生的士兵随处可见,他们的黑白照片被贴在从科勒维尔河畔通往奥马哈海滩的美军第一师公路的木质电线杆上。他们年轻的脸庞充满天真和希望。而法国散文家罗兰·巴特指出,每张老照片中都潜藏着灾难。

Perhaps the world, just two years after the end of the Covid-19 pandemic, needs little reminder of what it is like to be swept away by the gale of history, what it is for every assumption to collapse, what it is to feel the extreme fragility of freedom and life. Certainly, with armed conflicts raging in Ukraine and Gaza, it needs no reminder of war’s perennial grip on humanity.

也许,在新冠大流行病结束仅仅两年之后,世界已经不需要什么来提醒我们,被历史的狂风卷走、一切既有设想崩塌、感受到自由和生命的极度脆弱是什么滋味。当然,在乌克兰和加沙武装冲突肆虐之际,战争如何长期笼罩着人类,也无需提醒。

Hatred gets the blood pumping in a way that reasoned compromise and civilized disagreement — foundations of any healthy society living in freedom under the rule of law — do not. Today, many politicians in Western societies do not hesitate to play on such emotions in attacking “the other.”

仇恨会让人热血沸腾,而理智的妥协和文明的分歧——任何在法治下自由生活的健康社会的基础——则不会。如今,西方社会的许多政客都毫不犹豫地利用这种情绪来攻击“他者”。

Patrick Thomines, the mayor of Colleville-sur-Mer, stood in front of a school bedecked with the French, American and European Union flags, symbolizing the postwar trans-Atlantic foundation of the West. “You realize that peace is never won for all time, it’s an eternal struggle to secure it,” he said. “We should unite to avoid war, but extreme parties are rising and represent the very contrary of what we are celebrating here.”

滨海科勒维尔市市长帕特里·多明尼站在一所挂满法国、美国和欧盟旗帜的学校前,这些旗帜象征着战后跨大西洋的西方基础。“你要知道,和平永远不会一劳永逸,这是一场永恒的斗争,”他说。“我们应该团结起来避免战争,但极端政党正在崛起,他们所代表的东西与我们在这里庆祝的完全相反。”

The celebration has an extraordinary magnetism. The horrifying cratered landscape at the Pointe du Hoc, reminiscent of the still-pitted terrain of the Battle of Verdun in World War I, poses and reposes the question of how U.S. Rangers scaled that cliff. People flock to see it and wonder.

庆祝活动具有非凡的吸引力。奥克角可怕的弹坑景观让人想起第一次世界大战中的凡尔登战役,那里依然坑洼不平,同时也让人思考:美国陆军游骑兵是如何攀登这座悬崖的。人们蜂拥而至,对眼前的景象惊叹不已。

Converging from countless countries, they join in uniformed re-enactment groups. They careen around and among the hedgerows in jeeps, provoking endless traffic jams. They party and they dance and they come together on the vast wide sandy beaches in solemn contemplation of how Europe was saved from Hitler. Their children go to museums that recreate the terrain and the battle.

参观者来自无数国家,有人组成了穿制服的情景再现小组。他们开着吉普车在树篱间穿梭,引发严重的交通堵塞。他们狂欢、跳舞,聚集在广阔的沙滩上,沉思着欧洲是如何从希特勒手中被拯救出来。他们的孩子前往博物馆,那里重现了当年的地形和战争。

Yuri Milavc, a Slovenian who had traveled from Ljubljana with a jeep, along with 18 friends, also in jeeps, said he had now come to the Normandy commemorations several times. The feeling today was more mixed, he said. “I remember how Europe once felt,” he told me. “Now Putin has showed his true colors and is fighting the last imperialist war in Europe.”

斯洛文尼亚人尤里·米拉维奇从卢布尔雅那开吉普车来到这里,有18位朋友也开着吉普车与他同行。米拉维奇说,他参加过好几次诺曼底纪念活动,然而今天的感觉更加复杂。“我记得欧洲曾经的感受,”他告诉我。“现在普京露出了他的真面目,正在欧洲打最后一场帝国主义战争。”

President Biden will meet with Volodymyr Zelensky, the president of Ukraine, in Normandy this week, a show of allied support for the country at a time when it is under increased Russian attack. President Emmanuel Macron, who has invited Mr. Biden to a state dinner on Saturday, has also chosen to draw a strong link between the 80th anniversary of D-Day and the fight for freedom in Ukraine.

本周,拜登总统将在诺曼底会见乌克兰总统泽连斯基,在乌克兰遭受俄罗斯更多的攻击之际,这显示了盟国对该国的支持。法国总统马克龙邀请拜登参加周六的国宴,他将诺曼底登陆80周年纪念日与乌克兰争取自由的斗争紧密联系起来。

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“I know that our country, with its bold and valiant youth, is ready in the same spirit of sacrifice as our forbears,” he said in a speech Wednesday in Brittany.

周三在布列塔尼一次演讲中,马克龙说:“我知道,我们的国家拥有勇敢无畏的年轻人,他们与我们的先辈一样,已经带着牺牲精神,做好了准备。”

When it comes to spirit, it is difficult to match that of Cpl. Wilbur Jack Myers, 100, of Company B, 692nd Tank Destroyer Battalion, attached to the 104th and 42nd Infantry Division. He was so excited about coming to Normandy for the anniversary, he said he did not “feel a day over 85!” To prove it, he’s been enjoying karaoke sessions back home in Hagerstown, Md.

说到精神,前后隶属第104和第42步兵师的692坦克歼击营B连下士、现年100岁的威尔伯·杰克·迈尔斯堪称难以匹敌。前来诺曼底参加周年纪念令他非常兴奋,他说“感觉不到自己已经过了85岁!”为了证明这一点,他经常在马里兰州黑格斯敦的家中享受卡拉OK。

One of 13 children from a Maryland family, trained to be a gunner, Corporal Myers arrived in Cherbourg, France, on Sept. 23, 1944. It was the start of an odyssey that ended with the liberation of the Nazi Dachau camp near Munich in late April, 1945.

1944年9月23日,迈尔斯下士来到法国瑟堡,他是马里兰州一个家庭的13个孩子之一,他接受了炮手培训。这是一段漫长旅程的开始,直到1945年4月下旬慕尼黑附近的纳粹达豪集中营被解放才结束。

“It really hurt me to look at those skin-and-bone prisoners, and I knew that many were already dead,” Corporal Myers told me. “I’ve never forgotten it, but for 50 years I was silent because if I tried to talk about the war I would tear up and get embarrassed. Finally, I got the strength.”

“看着那些皮包骨头的囚犯,我真的很难过,我知道很多人已经死了,”迈尔斯告诉我。“我永远忘不了,但50年来我一直保持沉默,因为如果我想谈论那场战争,就会流泪并感到羞愧。最后,我终于鼓起了勇气。”

Corporal Myers said he felt he had to be part of the fight to stop Hitler, but had no wish to die. He was a gunner with a 90-mm anti-tank gun, a “helluva weapon,” as he put it. One devastating firefight in which a member of his tank crew died as shrapnel went through his steel helmet took a heavy emotional toll. The dead man was a Native American named Albert Haske.

迈尔斯下士说,他觉得自己必须参与阻止希特勒的战斗,但他不想死。他是90毫米反坦克炮的炮手,用他自己的话说,那是一种“不得了的武器”。在一次毁灭性的交火中,他所在坦克上的一名乘员因弹片穿过钢盔身亡,这给他造成了沉重的精神打击。死者是一个名叫阿尔伯特·哈斯克的美洲原住民。

“Recently his great-great-great nephew saw me on TV and made contact with me,” Corporal Myers said. “Looks just like his uncle!”

“最近他的曾曾曾侄子在电视上看到我,和我取得了联系,”迈尔斯下士说。“他长得真像他叔叔!”

Sometimes he would examine German corpses and find crucifixes and conclude that despite their faith they could not say no to Hitler. His own Christian faith is strong. He said it keeps him walking straight and loving others and that is how he has made it this far. Hatred, he believes, is part of human nature, and the quest for power and money provokes wars, but all this can be beaten with faith. “Hell, I don’t even know you and I love you!” Corporal Myers said.

有时他会去检查德国人的尸体,他找到了十字架,于是得出结论:尽管他们有信仰,但他们无法对希特勒说不。他自己的基督教信仰很坚定。他说,这让他一生正直,爱他人,这就是他能走到今天的原因。他认为,仇恨是人性的一部分,对权力和金钱的追求会引发战争,但这一切都可以用信仰来战胜。“见鬼,我甚至都不认识你,但我爱你!”迈尔斯下士说。

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He grew meditative about war. “You know, I never killed anyone I did not have to, although I felt like it a lot of times when we were pinned down. It’s hard for me to believe that today Putin is so ready to kill to seize other countries.”

他思考战争。“你知道,我从来没有杀过不是非杀不可的人,尽管好几次我们被敌人压制动弹不得的时候,我会有那种念头。我很难相信今天的普京会为了夺取其他国家而杀人。”

With war back in Europe, the ghosts that have haunted the continent feel closer, when two decades ago it appeared they had been laid to rest. The European Union was created to put an end to war and has proved a peace magnet. NATO has been Europe’s military guarantor. The two institutions have held the line, but the line between the world and war feels flimsier today than in a long time.

随着欧洲再次爆发战争,这片大陆一直挥之不去的幽灵感觉更近了,而20年前,这些幽灵似乎已经安息。欧盟的成立是为了结束战争,事实证明,它是和平的磁石。北约一直是欧洲的军事保障。这两个机构一直守卫着边界,但在当下,世界几十年来第一次像这样接近战争的边缘。

It has been hard to escape that feeling even in a festive Normandy, and I have found myself thinking of the last verse of Siegfried Sassoon’s “Suicide in the Trenches,” a poem of World War I:

即使在欢庆的诺曼底也很难摆脱这种感觉,我想起西格夫里·萨松的《战壕中的自杀》(Suicide in the Trenches)的最后一节,这是一首关于第一次世界大战的诗:

You smug-faced crowds with kindling eye Who cheer when soldier lads march by, Sneak home and pray you’ll never know The hell where youth and laughter go.

你们这些洋洋得意、眼神狂热的看客/士兵们列队经过,你们欢呼雀跃/然后溜回家里,祈祷永远不会知道/那青春和欢笑去了什么样的地方。

摄影:Laetitia Vancon

Roger Cohen是《纽约时报》巴黎分社社长,报道法国和其他地区新闻。作为一名从业40多年的记者,他报道过黎巴嫩、波斯尼亚和乌克兰等多场战争,包括以色列和加沙之间的战争。他在时报历任记者、国际新闻编辑和观点版面专栏作家。点击查看更多关于他的信息

翻译:纽约时报中文网

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