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中華青年思想與行動的聚合地

ANTON TROIANOVSKI

2024年2月20日

周六,在俄罗斯驻法兰克福领事馆附近一处纪念地的鲜花和阿列克谢·纳瓦尔尼的照片。 Michael Probst/Associated Press

Confined to cold, concrete cells and often alone with his books, Aleksei A. Navalny sought solace in letters. To one acquaintance, he wrote in July that no one could understand Russian prison life “without having been here,” adding in his deadpan humor: “But there’s no need to be here.”

被囚禁在冰冷的混凝土牢房,时常独自与书为伴的阿列克谢·纳瓦尔尼在书信往来中寻求慰藉。去年7月,他在给一位熟人的信中写道,“没有来过这里”,就无法理解俄罗斯的监狱生活,并以冷幽默补充说,“但没必要来这里”。

“If they’re told to feed you caviar tomorrow, they’ll feed you caviar,” Mr. Navalny, the Russian opposition leader, wrote to the same acquaintance, Ilia Krasilshchik, in August. “If they’re told to strangle you in your cell, they’ll strangle you.”

“如果他们接到命令,明天要给你吃鱼子酱,他们就会给你鱼子酱,”俄罗斯反对派领袖纳瓦尔尼在去年8月写给上述熟人伊利亚·克拉西利希克的信中写道。“如果他们接到命令要在你的牢房里把你勒死,他们就会把你勒死。”

Many details about his last months — as well as the circumstances of his death, which the Russian authorities announced on Friday — remain unknown; even the whereabouts of his body are unclear.

俄罗斯当局上周五宣布了他的死讯。关于他生命最后几个月的许多细节仍然不得而知,就连他的尸骨都下落不明。

Mr. Navalny’s aides have said little as they process the loss. But his final months of life are detailed in previous statements from him and his aides, his appearances in court, interviews with people close to him and excerpts from private letters that several friends, including Mr. Krasilshchik, shared with The New York Times.

纳瓦尔尼的助手在逐渐消化失去纳瓦尔尼这件事,与此同时他们几乎没有透露任何消息。但他和助手之前的声明、他在法庭上的露面、对他身边人的采访,以及包括克拉西利希克在内的几位朋友向《纽约时报》分享的私人信件摘录详细描述了他生命的最后几个月。

19navalny tiktok mtcf jumbo纳瓦尔尼去年8月在狱中写给伊利亚·克拉西利希克的信。他在信中写道,法庭听证会“会分散你的注意力,让时间过得更快”。

The letters reveal the depth of the ambition, resolve and curiosity of a leader who galvanized the opposition to President Vladimir V. Putin and who, supporters hope, will live on as a unifying symbol of their resistance. They also show how Mr. Navalny — with a healthy ego and incessant confidence that what he was doing was right — struggled to stay connected to the outside world.

这些信件展现了一个领袖的雄心、决心和好奇心,他激励着反对普京总统的力量,而支持者们希望他作为团结抵抗的象征一直存在下去。这些信件也展现了纳瓦尔尼是如何努力与外界保持联系的——他有着健康的自我意识,坚信自己所做的一切都是正确的。

Even as brutal prison conditions took their toll on his body — he was often denied medical and dental treatment — there was no hint that Mr. Navalny had lost his clarity of mind, his writings show.

纳瓦尔尼的文字显示,尽管恶劣的监狱条件对他的身体造成了伤害——他经常无法得到医疗照护和牙科治疗——但没有迹象表明他的头脑失去了清醒。

19navalny tiktok phcj master1050位于俄罗斯北极地区哈尔普的IK-3流放地,纳瓦尔尼去世时被关押在那里。

He boasted of reading 44 books in English in a year and was methodically preparing for the future: refining his agenda, studying political memoirs, arguing with journalists, dispensing career advice to friends and opining on viral social media posts that his team sent him.

他号称自己一年读44本英文书,并且正在有条不紊地为未来做准备:完善自己的议程,研究政治回忆录,与记者们展开辩论,向朋友提供职业建议,并就团队发给他的疯狂传播的社交媒体帖子发表观点。

In his public messages, Mr. Navalny, who was 47 when he died, called his jailing since January 2021 his “space voyage.” By last fall, he was more alone than ever, forced to spend much of his time in solitary confinement and left without three of his lawyers, who were arrested for participation in an “extremist group.”

纳瓦尔尼去世时年仅47岁,他在公开信息中自2021年1月以来的囚禁生涯是他的“太空之旅”。到了去年秋天,他比以往任何时候都更加孤独,大部分时间被单独囚禁,他的三名律师也因参与 “极端组织”而被捕,从而失去了他们的探访权。

Still, he kept up with current events. To a friend, the Russian photographer Evgeny Feldman, Mr. Navalny confided that the electoral agenda of former U.S. President Donald J. Trump looked “really scary.”

尽管如此,他一直关注着时事。他跟朋友、俄罗斯摄影师叶夫根尼·费尔德曼谈到了美国前总统特朗普的选举议程,看起来“真的很可怕”。

“Trump will become president” should President Biden’s health suffer, Mr. Navalny wrote from his high-security prison cell. “Doesn’t this obvious thing concern the Democrats?”

“如果拜登总统的健康出现问题,特朗普将成为总统,”纳瓦尼从他的高安全监狱牢房里写道。“这么显而易见的事情,难道民主党不感到担忧吗?”

A Public Life

公共生活

Mr. Navalny was able to send hundreds of handwritten letters, thanks to the curious digitalization of the Russian prison system, a relic of a brief burst of liberal reform in the middle of Mr. Putin’s 24-year rule. Through a website, people could write to him for 40 cents a page and receive scans of his responses, typically a week or two after he sent them, and after they passed through a censor.

纳瓦尔尼能够寄出数百封手写信件,得益于俄罗斯监狱系统奇特的数字化,这是普京24年统治期间短暂的自由主义改革的遗留物。通过一个网站,人们可以以每页40美分的价格给他写信,并收到他的回信扫描件,通常是在他发送回复一到两周后,而且信件经过了审查。

Mr. Navalny also communicated with the outside world through his lawyers, who held up documents against the window separating them after they were barred from passing papers. At one point, Mr. Navalny reported in 2022, prison officials covered the window in foil.

纳瓦尔尼还通过他的律师与外界交流,在他们被禁止传递文件后,律师们改为隔着玻璃将文件举起。纳瓦尔尼在2022年报告说,狱警一度用箔纸将窗户遮住。

Then there were his frequent court hearings on new criminal cases brought by the state to extend his imprisonment, or on complaints that Mr. Navalny filed about his treatment. Mr. Navalny told Mr. Krasilshchik, a media entrepreneur now in exile in Berlin, that he enjoyed those hearings, despite the rubber-stamp nature of Russia’s judicial system.

此外,他还经常出席法庭听证会,聆讯国家为延长他的刑期而提起的新刑事案件,或者纳瓦尔尼就待遇问题提出的申诉。纳瓦尔尼对流亡柏林的媒体创业者克拉西利希克说,尽管俄罗斯的司法系统是橡皮图章,但他很享受这些听证会。

“They distract you and help the time pass faster,” he wrote. “In addition, they provide excitement and a sense of struggle and pursuit.”

“它们会分散你的注意力,让时间过得更快,”他写道。“此外,它们还带来刺激感,以及一种奋斗和追求的感觉。”

19navalny tiktok 02 gcfl master10502022年,在莫斯科的一场听证会上,身在波克罗夫监狱的纳瓦尔尼的视频画面。中毒康复后,纳瓦尔尼回到了俄罗斯,被判了几次监禁,总刑期超过30年。

The court appearances also provided him an opportunity to show his contempt for the system. This past July, at the conclusion of a trial that resulted in another 19-year sentence, Mr. Navalny told the judge and officers in the courtroom they were “crazy.”

出庭也为他提供了一个机会来表达对制度的蔑视。今年7月,在一场审判结束后,纳瓦尔尼告诉法官和法警,他们“疯了”。这次审判又给他带来19年的刑期。

“You have one, God-given life, and this is what you choose to spend it on?” he said, according to text of the speech published by his team.

“上天就赐予你们一次生命,而你们却选择把它花在这上面?”根据他的团队发布的演讲稿,他对审判者说道。

In one of his last hearings, by video link in January, Mr. Navalny argued for the right to longer meal breaks to consume the “two mugs of boiling water and two pieces of disgusting bread” to which he was entitled.

在今年1月的最后一次听证会上,纳瓦尔尼通过视频连线为自己争取了延长用餐时间的权利,以享用他应得的“两杯开水和两片难以下嘴的面包”。

Books Sustained Him

书本支撑着他

Books appeared to be at the center of Mr. Navalny’s prison life, all the way until his death.

书似乎是纳瓦尔尼监狱生活的中心,直至他去世。

In a letter last April to Mr. Krasilshchik, Mr. Navalny explained that he preferred to be reading 10 books simultaneously and “switch between them.” He said he came to love memoirs: “For some reason I always despised them. But they’re actually amazing.”

在去年4月给克拉西利希克的信中,纳瓦尔尼解释说,他喜欢同时阅读10本书,“换着看。”他说他开始喜欢上了回忆录:“出于某种原因,过去我一直鄙视它们。但其实很精彩。”

He was frequently soliciting reading recommendations, but also dispensed them. Describing prison life to Mr. Krasilshchik in a July letter, he recommended nine books on the subject, including a 1,012-page, three-volume set by the Soviet dissident Anatoly Marchenko.

他经常征求荐书,但也会给出自己的推荐。在7月的信中,他向克拉西利希克描述了监狱生活,并推荐了九本相关主题的书,其中包括苏联异见人士阿纳托利·马尔琴科的一套1012页、三卷本巨著。

Mr. Navalny added in that letter that he had reread “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,” the searing Alexander Solzhenitsyn novel about Stalin’s gulag. Having survived a hunger strike and gone months “in the state of ‘I want to eat,’” Mr. Navalny said he only now started to grasp the depravity of the Soviet-era labor camps.

纳瓦尔尼在那封信中还说,他重读了亚历山大·索尔仁尼琴关于斯大林古拉格集中营的小说《伊凡·杰尼索维奇的一天》(One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich)。纳瓦尔尼说,他挺过了绝食抗议,几个月来“一直处于‘想吃东西’的状态”,并表示现在才开始明白苏联时代劳改营的邪恶。

“You start to realize the degree of horror,” he wrote.

“你开始意识到那有多么恐怖,”他写道。

Kerry Kennedy, a human-rights activist and the daughter of the Democratic politician Robert F. Kennedy, who was assassinated in 1968, also exchanged letters with Mr. Navalny. He told her that he had cried “two or three times” while reading a book about her father recommended by a friend, according to a copy of a letter, handwritten in English, that Ms. Kennedy posted on Instagram after Mr. Navalny died.

人权活动人士、1968年被暗杀的民主党政治人士罗伯特·肯尼迪的女儿凯莉·肯尼迪也与纳瓦尔尼互通信件。纳瓦尔尼去世后,肯尼迪在Instagram上公开了一封英文手写信的打印件,信中纳瓦尔尼告诉她,在阅读一位朋友推荐的一本关于她父亲的书时,自己“数度”落泪。

Mr. Navalny thanked Ms. Kennedy for sending him a poster with a quote from her father’s speech about how a “ripple of hope,” multiplied a million times, “can sweep down the mightiest walls of oppression and resistance.”

纳瓦尔尼感谢凯莉·肯尼迪寄给他一张海报,上面引用了她父亲演讲中的一段话,说“希望的涟漪”如果放大一百万倍,就可以“冲垮最坚固的压迫与反抗之墙”。”

“I hope one day I’ll be able to hang it on the wall of my office,” Mr. Navalny wrote.

“我希望有一天能把它挂在办公室的墙上,”纳瓦尔尼写道。

19navalny tiktok hvwz master1050纳瓦尔尼于2018年抵达莫斯科接受审判。他在监狱里的大部分时间都在读书,在给朋友的信中,他说他更喜欢一次读好几本书。

Staying Connected

保持联系

The friend who recommended the Kennedy book was Mr. Feldman, the Russian photographer who covered Mr. Navalny’s attempt to run for president in 2018. Mr. Feldman, now in exile in Latvia, said he sent at least 37 letters to Mr. Navalny since his 2021 arrest and received replies to almost all of them.

推荐那本书的朋友是俄罗斯摄影师费尔德曼,他曾经报道过纳瓦尔尼在2018年的总统竞选。目前流亡拉脱维亚的费尔德曼说,自纳瓦尔尼2021年被捕以来,他至少给他写过37封信,几乎所有信件都收到了回复。

“I really like your letters,” Mr. Navalny wrote in the last message that Mr. Feldman received, dated Dec. 3, excerpts from which he shared with The Times. “They’ve got everything I like to discuss: food, politics, elections, scandalous topics and ethnicity issues.”

“我真的很喜欢你的信,”纳瓦尔尼在费尔德曼收到的最后一封信件中写道,日期是12月3日,费尔德曼同时报分享了信件的摘录。“里面有我喜欢讨论的一切:美食、政治、选举、丑闻话题和民族问题。”

19navalny tiktok jcwg master10502022年,鲍里斯·涅姆佐夫遇刺七周年之际,克里姆林宫外遇害现场的悼念者。

The latter, Mr. Feldman said, was a reference to their exchanges on antisemitism and the Gaza war. Mr. Navalny also described his newfound appreciation for the actor Matthew Perry, who died in October; though he had never watched “Friends,” Mr. Navalny was moved by an obituary he read in The Economist.

费尔德曼说,后者指的是他们关于反犹主义和加沙战争问题上的交流。纳瓦尔尼还说,他最近对去年10月去世的演员马修·佩里产生了兴趣;虽然从未看过《老友记》(Friends),但《经济学人》上的讣告令纳瓦尔尼深受感动。

The December letter ended with Mr. Navalny’s thoughts on a preoccupation he shared with Mr. Feldman — American politics. After warning of a potential Trump presidency, Mr. Navalny concluded with a query: “Please name one current politician you admire.”

在去年12月那封信的最后,纳瓦尔尼写到了他和费尔德曼共同关注的问题——美国政治。在警告特朗普可能当选总统后,纳瓦尔尼以一个提问作为结束:“请说出一位你钦佩的现任政治人士。”

Three days after Mr. Navalny sent that letter, he disappeared.

发出那封信三天后,纳瓦尔尼失踪了。

During a frantic, 20-day search, Mr. Navalny’s exiled allies said they sent more than 600 requests to prisons and other government agencies.

在20天的疯狂搜寻中,纳瓦尔尼的流亡盟友们表示,他们向多个监狱和其他政府机构发出了600多份询问函。

On Dec. 25, Mr. Navalny’s spokeswoman declared he had been found in a remote Arctic prison known as Polar Wolf.

12月25日,纳瓦尔尼的发言人宣布找到他了,他在北极地区一个名为“极地狼”的偏远监狱里。

Mr. Navalny’s mother, Lyudmila Navalnaya, flew to the Arctic after the announcement of his death and, on Saturday, received an official notice that he had died at 2:17 p.m. the prior day.

纳瓦尔尼去世的消息宣布后,他的母亲柳德米拉·纳瓦尔尼娅飞往北极,并于周六收到正式通知,称他已于前一天下午2点17分去世。

Mr. Navalny’s legacy will live on, friends and allies say, in part through his writings in prison. Mr. Feldman, the photographer, said that Mr. Navalny’s legal team told him that the opposition leader had responded to at least some of the letters Mr. Feldman sent in recent weeks.

纳瓦尔尼的朋友和盟友们表示,他的影响在一定程度上将通过他在狱中的写作继续留存。摄影师费尔德曼说,纳瓦尔尼的法律团队告诉他,这位反对派领导人至少给费尔德曼最近几周发出的部分信件写了回信。

“Honestly, I think about this with horror,” Mr. Feldman said. “If the censors let them through, I’ll be getting letters from him for the next several months.”

“老实说,我对此感到恐惧,”费尔德曼说。“如果审查员让这些信件通过了,接下来的几个月我都会收到他的来信。”

Mr. Krasilshchik, the media entrepreneur, said he was left to ruminate on the last letter he received, in September. Mr. Navalny concluded it by positing that if South Korea and Taiwan were able to make the transition from dictatorship to democracy, then perhaps Russia could, too.

媒体企业家克拉西利希克说,他反复思考去年9月收到的最后一封来信。信中,纳瓦尔尼的结论是,如果韩国和台湾能够实现从专制到民主的过渡,那么俄罗斯或许也可以。

“Hope. I’ve got no problem with it,” Mr. Navalny wrote.

“希望吧。我乐见其成,”纳瓦尔尼写道。

He signed off: “Keep writing! A.”

他最后写道:“继续写下去!A.”

19navalny tiktok ztqk master1050纳瓦尔尼的信涉及各种各样的话题,从推荐书籍到演员马修·佩里之死,从食物偏好到加沙战争。

艾莎, ZIXU WANG, OLIVIA WANG

2024年2月20日

Shuen Chun-wa, 81, and her husband hurried toward a green bus with two dozen other Hong Kong residents, dragging empty suitcases. They had purple tour stickers on their jackets and were headed to shop in Shenzhen, a bustling Chinese city that sits on the northern side of the border with Hong Kong.

81岁的孙振惠和她的丈夫拖着空行李箱,还有另外20多名香港居民匆匆走向一辆绿色巴士。他们的外套上贴着紫色的旅游团贴纸,准备前往深圳购物。深圳是位于香港边境北侧的繁华中国城市。

It was Ms. Shuen’s second trip to Shenzhen to find bargains in a year. Last time, she got dental implants. “You can count how much I need to pay,” she said. She paid $9,000 in Shenzhen for a procedure that would have cost $25,000 in Hong Kong. “I don’t have the money. So I went to Shenzhen.”

这是孙振惠一年内第二次来深圳淘便宜货。上次她在这里种了牙。“你算算多少钱,”她说。她在深圳花了6.5万元人民币,而在香港则需要18万元。“我没钱,就去深圳做啦。”

Since China opened its borders in January 2023 after several years of pandemic isolation, Hong Kong residents have made Shenzhen a weekend destination to shop, dine and, yes, even visit the dentist.

自2023年1月,中国在经历了几年大流行期间的与世隔绝后开放边境以来,香港居民已将深圳作为周末购物、用餐甚至看牙医的目的地。

Tired of high costs, poor service and limited choices at home, Hong Kongers are going to Shenzhen to buy groceries, go out for meals and discover new bubble tea shops. Hong Kong remains one of the most unaffordable cities in the world, and its battered economy and plunging stock market have made everyone more money conscious. In China, a stalling economy has led to a steady decline in prices, falling by the most since the global financial crisis in 2009 and verging on a phenomenon known as deflation.

厌倦了香港高昂的生活成本、糟糕的服务和有限的选择,香港人开始前往深圳购买日用品、出去吃饭、探索新的珍珠奶茶店。香港仍然是世界上房价最昂贵的城市之一,其遭受重创的经济和暴跌的股市让每个人花钱都更加谨慎。在中国,经济停滞导致物价持续下跌,跌幅创2009年全球金融危机以来最大,接近通缩水平。

The shopping migration is a reversal of the days when mainland Chinese flocked to Hong Kong to shop for everything from luxury bags to baby formula. Now for Hong Kongers, China’s slowdown offers a rare break in prices. All it takes is a short bus or subway trip across the border to the mainland.

这种购物迁徙是对大陆人涌入香港购买从昂贵包包到婴儿配方奶粉等各种商品的逆转。现在,对于香港人来说,中国经济放缓带来了罕见的价格优惠。只需乘坐短途巴士或地铁即可跨境到达大陆。

深圳罗湖口岸,这里是香港与内地之间的主要口岸。

在罗湖口岸,一个大型电子屏展示着一家牙科诊所的广告,在那里做一次牙齿种植需要花费3680元人民币。
在罗湖口岸,一个大型电子屏展示着一家牙科诊所的广告,在那里做一次牙齿种植需要花费3680元人民币。 Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times

On social media and in chat groups, hundreds of thousands of Hong Kongers talk about new food offerings in Shenzhen like pastries filled with seaweed and pork floss. They share tips about where to find bubble tea including one place where the tea is made by robot. Tour operators that once focused on package tours to Japan and Thailand are also organizing buses to shopping centers in Shenzhen to visit stores like Sam’s Club.

在社交媒体和聊天群中,数十万香港人讨论深圳的新美食,比如有海苔和肉松馅的糕点。他们分享了在哪里可以找到珍珠奶茶的攻略,其中包括一个由机器人做奶茶的店。曾经专注于日本和泰国跟团游的旅行社也开始组织巴士前往深圳的购物中心,前往山姆会员店等商店。

Some weekends, there are so many Hong Kongers in Shenzhen malls that locals have joked that the visitors have “occupied” them.

有的周末,深圳商场里挤满了香港人,当地人戏称游客“占领”了商场。

Their presence in Shenzhen, a city with a population of 17 million, is visible everywhere. Some stores tailor their advertising by using Cantonese, Hong Kong’s local Chinese language, to draw tourists into their shops. Restaurants offer discounts for customers with phone numbers that include Hong Kong’s 852 area code. In one big shopping mall near a border crossing, opticians and dental clinics promise cheaper service than Hong Kong that requires only a short trip. “Cross the border to check your teeth with zero distance,” a giant neon pink advertisement lured.

在深圳这座拥有1700万人口的城市里,他们的身影随处可见。一些商店针对他们用粤语打广告,以吸引游客进入他们的商店。餐厅为电话号码有香港区号852的顾客提供折扣。在边境口岸附近的一家大型购物中心,眼镜店和牙科诊所承诺提供比香港更廉价的服务,而且只需要短途旅行。“过关零距离看牙,”巨型粉色霓虹灯广告吆喝道。

On a busy day, the GoodFeel Dentist clinic might see more than 100 customers from Hong Kong, said Lan Xinghua, a sales director at GoodFeel Dentist. He said the company’s revenue doubled when the Hong Kong border opened last year. To get even more business, the clinic set up a stall near the Luohu Port border crossing. Employees are expected to speak Cantonese as well as Mandarin, China’s official language.

格伦菲尔口腔的销售总监蓝星华表示,人多的时候诊所可能要接待100多名来自香港的顾客。他表示,去年香港边境开放后,该公司的收益翻了一番。为了获得更多生意,诊所在罗湖口岸附近设立了一个摊位。公司希望员工会说粤语以及中国的官方语言普通话。

“Hong Kong customers spend more lavishly and don’t usually bargain too much,” Mr. Lan said. Sometimes entire families come to get their teeth cleaned and fixed.

“香港的客户花钱比较大手笔,一般不会怎么讲价的,”蓝星华说。有时全家人都会来洗牙和看牙。

购物者在山姆会员店排起了长龙。
购物者在山姆会员店排起了长龙。 Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times
对香港人来说,中国经济放缓带来了罕见的价格优惠。只需乘坐短途巴士或地铁即可跨境到达大陆。
对香港人来说,中国经济放缓带来了罕见的价格优惠。只需乘坐短途巴士或地铁即可跨境到达大陆。 Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times

The two cities are divided by a border that distinguishes mainland China from Hong Kong, a Chinese territory that long operated with some degree of autonomy but has come increasingly under Beijing’s sway.

这两个城市被中国大陆与香港的边界区隔开来。香港是中国的领土,但长期以来一直享有一定程度的自治权,只是如今越来越受到北京的控制。

Many Hong Kongers traveling to the mainland to shop had not been there since 2019. That is when pro-democracy protests engulfed Hong Kong and the government responded with a crackdown, stamping out the political tolerance that had distinguished Hong Kong from mainland China.

许多前往内地购物的香港人自2019年以来就没有踏足过这里。当时,民主抗议活动席卷了香港,政府以镇压作为回应,抹杀了曾经将香港与中国内地区别开来的政治宽容。

Now people in Hong Kong, using online forums that are censored or inaccessible on the mainland, discuss whether it is safe and politically acceptable for people who disagree with China’s government to visit Shenzhen even simply to shop and dine.

现在,香港人利用在内地受到审查或无法访问的在线论坛,讨论与中国政府持不同意见的人去深圳是否安全、政治上是否可接受,哪怕只是购物和用餐。

For many, the answer is “yes.”

对于许多人来说,答案是“是”。

“Life and political opinion can be separated,” said Chak Yeung, 31, a Hong Kong resident who works in the tech industry. He was involved in the past with student organizations that participated in protests, but he doesn’t see any conflict between his political views and what he does for fun on the weekends.

“生活和政治观点是可以分开的,”31岁的香港居民、在科技行业工作的杨泽说。他过去曾参与过进行抗议活动的学生组织,但他并不认为自己的政治观点与周末的娱乐活动之间有任何冲突。

自2023年1月,中国在经历了几年大流行期间的与世隔绝后开放边境以来,香港居民已将深圳作为周末购物、用餐,甚至看牙医的目的地。
自2023年1月,中国在经历了几年大流行期间的与世隔绝后开放边境以来,香港居民已将深圳作为周末购物、用餐,甚至看牙医的目的地。 Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times
深圳,一家热闹餐馆里的香港人。深圳的一些餐厅为电话号码有香港区号852的顾客提供折扣。
深圳,一家热闹餐馆里的香港人。深圳的一些餐厅为电话号码有香港区号852的顾客提供折扣。 Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times

Hong Kong has a separate currency from China, and its merchants still rely heavily on cash for payments. China’s main form of payments is digital: The two primary payment apps, WeChat and Alipay, have only recently been available to Hong Kongers and not everyone is familiar with them. To help visiting shoppers, posters plastered in Shenzhen’s stores and subway stations explain how Hong Kong residents can use WeChat and Alipay. Tourists can also pay in Hong Kong dollars and not convert their money to Chinese renminbi.

香港的货币与中国不同,当地商家仍然严重依赖现金支付,而中国则以数字支付为主:微信和支付宝这两个主要支付应用程序最近才向香港人开放,并不是每个人都熟悉它们。为了帮助到访的购物者,深圳的商店和地铁站张贴了海报,解释香港居民应当如何使用微信和支付宝。游客也可以用港币支付,不用兑换成人民币。

But paying doesn’t always go that smoothly. On her most recent trip, Ms. Shuen used cash to buy dandelions that her son uses in his Chinese medicine practice in Hong Kong, as well as some dried shrimp. But she said that paying with cash was difficult.

但付款并不总是那么顺利。在最近一次旅行中,孙振惠用现金购买了在香港作中医的儿子需要的蒲公英,以及一些虾米。但她表示,用现金支付很困难。

It can be hard to get around Shenzhen, too. Two women from Hong Kong had to ask a Shenzhen resident, Kristen Lu, 28, how to use local navigational apps on their phones. They had not realized that Google maps doesn’t work in mainland China because the company is blocked.

在深圳四处走动也很困难。两名香港女性不得不向28岁的深圳居民克里斯汀·卢询问如何在手机上使用本地导航应用程序。他们没有意识到谷歌地图在中国大陆无法使用,因为该公司被封锁了。

Mr. Yeung, the tech worker, has visited Shenzhen twice in the past year. He likes to eat hot pot and play archery and basketball in a sports entertainment complex. He said the workers he encounters in Shenzhen are more pleasant.

科技行业从业者杨泽去年曾两次来深圳。他喜欢吃火锅,喜欢在体育娱乐中心射箭、打篮球。他说他在深圳遇到的工作人员都比较令人愉快。

一个售卖炒菜锅的摊位。深圳商场里挤满了香港人,当地人戏称游客“占领”了商场。
一个售卖炒菜锅的摊位。深圳商场里挤满了香港人,当地人戏称游客“占领”了商场。 Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times
一家内地和香港人都十分青睐的茶馆。在社交媒体和聊天群中,数十万香港人在讨论深圳的美食和茶饮。
一家内地和香港人都十分青睐的茶馆。在社交媒体和聊天群中,数十万香港人在讨论深圳的美食和茶饮。 Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times

Service in Hong Kong is gruffer and more hasty, he said.

他说,香港的服务更加粗暴和仓促。

For Iris Yiu, 29, a student pursuing a master’s degree in Hong Kong, going to Shenzhen is all about the food. She said she’s a fanatic for spicy food, a staple in parts of southern China, and in November she and two friends went to Shenzhen and “crazily ordered” at a famous Sichuan food chain called Taier Sauerkraut Fish. They weren’t finished. They next stopped at Bobo Chicken, a restaurant offering vegetables and meat served in small bites on sticks that cost 14 cents each.

对于29岁在香港攻读硕士学位的学生艾丽斯·姚来说,去深圳就是为了吃。她说,她是中国南方部分地区常见的辛辣食物的狂热爱好者,去年11月,她和两个朋友去了深圳,在一家名为“太二酸菜鱼”的著名川菜连锁店“疯狂点餐”。这还不够。他们的脚步接下来停在了钵钵鸡,一家供应蔬菜和肉串的餐馆,每串售价一元钱。

Ms. Yiu said local patrons stared at them as they grabbed as many sticks as they could. Someone at a nearby table said, “This is the style of Hong Kong people, as if they don’t need money!”

姚女士说在他们疯狂吃串的时候,当地顾客盯着他们看。邻桌有人说:“这就是香港人的风格,好像不要钱一样!”

Snow Wong, 28, learned about Shenzhen when her friends and colleagues returned from weekend trips. After so many rave reviews, Ms. Wong decided to check it out herself.

28岁的斯诺·王是在朋友和同事从周末旅行回来后了解到深圳的。听了这么多好评后,她决定亲自去看看。

She visited amusement arcades and karaoke bars and found the city had more interesting escape room games, her favorite past time, than Hong Kong. She used Hong Kong dollars to pay for a visit to a spa near the Luohu border crossing.

她去了游戏厅和卡拉OK厅,发现这座城市比香港有更多有趣的密室逃脱游戏,这是她最喜欢的消遣。她用港币支付了去罗湖口岸附近一家水疗中心的费用。

Most of all, Ms. Snow said, Shenzhen offered something Hong Kong famously lacks: a slower pace.

斯诺·王说,最重要的是,深圳提供了众人皆知香港所缺乏的东西:较慢的节奏。

“The pace of Shenzhen and Hong Kong are so different,” Ms. Wong said. “Shenzhen is where I go to relax.”

“深圳和香港的节奏非常不同,”王女士说。“深圳是我去放松的地方。”

在鲍师傅等待购买糕点的香港人。
在鲍师傅等待购买糕点的香港人。 Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times

00hong kong shoppers 11 fwht master1050深圳一处受香港人欢迎的市场街,在按摩店里的人们。

HEATHER KNIGHT, AMY QIN

2024年2月20日

2020年,旧金山的中文选票。 Jim Wilson/The New York Times

Hong Le still remembers meeting a charismatic woman campaigning for San Francisco district attorney in 2003. In Cantonese, that woman’s name was 賀錦麗, which is pronounced Ho Gam-lai and means “Congratulate Brocade Beautiful.”

乐洪(音)还记得2003年在旧金山地方检察官竞选活动中遇到的一位魅力四射的女参选人。这位女士的粤语名字是贺锦丽,读作Ho Gam-lai,意思是“祝贺美丽的锦绣”。

Most Americans know her by another name: Kamala Harris.

大多数美国人都知道她的另一个名字:卡玛拉·哈里斯。

“She’s the vice president right now,” Mr. Le, 88, said in Cantonese. “And she deserves it.”

“她现在是副总统,”88岁的乐洪用粤语说。“她当之无愧。”

In San Francisco, where more than a fifth of residents are of Chinese descent, politicians have long taken a second name in Chinese characters. And any serious candidate knows to order campaign materials in English and in Chinese.

在旧金山,超过五分之一的居民是华裔,政界人士向来会给自己另外取一个汉字名。认真对待的候选人都知道竞选材料要做成中英双语。

But the city’s leniency for adopted names has frustrated some Chinese American candidates, who say that non-Chinese rivals have gone overboard by using flattering, flowery phrases that at first glance have little to do with their actual names. Some candidates have gained an advantage or engaged in cultural appropriation, the critics say.

但该市对别名的宽容让一些华裔美国候选人感到不满,他们说,非华裔竞争对手过分使用美化、花俏的字眼作为名字,乍看上去与他们的本名几乎没有关系。批评者说,一些候选人从中获得了优势,或者是在搞文化挪用。

No more. For the first time, San Francisco has rejected Chinese names submitted by 22 candidates, in most cases because they could not prove they had used the names for at least two years. The city has asked translators to furnish names that are transliterated, a process that more closely approximates English pronunciations.

今后不会这样了。旧金山首次拒绝了22名候选人提交的中文名,大多数情况下是因为他们无法证明自己使用过这些名字至少两年。该市请翻译员给出了更接近英语发音的音译名。

18nat chinese ballot qpzg master1050在旧金山里士满娱乐中心打乒乓球的间隙,乐洪说,对他来说,名字并不重要,重要的是候选人为社区做了什么。

That means Michael Isaku Begert, who is running to keep his local judgeship, cannot use 米高義, which means in part “high” and “justice,” a name that suggests he was destined to sit on the bench.

这意味着正在竞选连任地方法官的迈克尔·伊萨库·贝格尔特不能再使用“米高义”——含有“高”和“正义”的意思,暗示他注定要坐上法官宝座。

And Daniel Lurie, who is challenging Mayor London Breed, must scrap the name he had been campaigning with for months: 羅瑞德, which means “auspicious” and “virtue.” Mr. Lurie’s new name, 丹尼爾·羅偉, pronounced Daan-nei-ji Lo-wai, is a transliterated version that uses characters closer to the sound of his name in English but are meaningless when strung together.

而挑战旧金山市市长伦敦·布里德的丹尼尔·卢里必须放弃他几个月来一直在竞选中使用的“罗瑞德”——意思是“祥瑞”和“美德”。卢里的新名字“丹尼尔·罗伟”是音译,使用的字更接近英文名的发音,但是组合在一起就没有意义了。

Most Chinese names feature two to three characters — a surname, and a one- or two-character given name. In the Chinese-speaking world, choosing a baby’s name can carry so much weight that some parents still consult fortune tellers who consider factors like the exact time of birth and the number of brush strokes in a character to suggest an auspicious moniker imbued with meaning.

大多数中国人的名字都由两三个字组成——一个姓,以及一两个字的名。在中文世界里,给孩子取名字非常重要,以至于一些父母仍然会咨询算命先生,他们会考虑婴儿出生的确切时间,以及汉字的笔画数目等因素,给孩子取一个充满寓意的吉祥名字。

The federal Voting Rights Act requires that jurisdictions with a significant number of voters who aren’t fluent in English — like the large Cantonese-speaking population in San Francisco — provide translated ballots and voter materials. The act, however, leaves it up to local election officials to decide whether that includes candidates’ names.

联邦《投票权法案》要求,有大量英语不流利选民的司法管辖区——比如旧金山有大量讲粤语的人口——必须提供翻译好的选票和选民材料。然而,该法案规定,由地方选举官员决定这是否包括候选人的姓名。

Certain towns in Alaska must translate ballots into Yup’ik, an Indigenous Alaskan language, while some counties in Arizona must do so in Navajo and Apache. Hundreds of jurisdictions around the nation must translate their ballots into Spanish, while 19 must print them in Chinese, 12 in Vietnamese and four in Korean.

阿拉斯加州的某些城镇必须将选票翻译成阿拉斯加原住民语言尤皮克语,而亚利桑那州的一些县必须将选票翻译成纳瓦霍语和阿帕奇语。全国有数百个选区必须将选票翻译成西班牙文,19个选区必须翻译成中文,12个选区必须翻译成越南文,四个选区必须翻译成韩文。

San Francisco has mandated since 1999 that candidates’ names appear in both English and Chinese. But now, in adherence to a 2019 state law, it is requiring transliteration for new candidates while allowing those who can prove they have used a Chinese name for at least two years to keep using it. (The law also applies to ballots printed in other character-based languages, such as Japanese and Korean.)

自1999年以来,旧金山规定,候选人的名字必须使用中英双语。但现在,根据2019年的一项州法律,它要求新的候选人必须使用音译名字,同时允许那些能够证明自己使用中文姓名至少两年的候选人继续使用这个姓名(该法律也适用于以其他字符为基础的语言印制的选票,如日文和韩文)。

The switch isn’t universally popular. It ends a San Francisco tradition, cherished in some circles, in which Chinese leaders have bestowed names upon their favorite candidates. And it has the potential of resulting in long monikers that are difficult to remember or even cringe-worthy, since the characters that sound like someone’s name may translate into odd phrases in Chinese.

并非所有人都欢迎这一改变。它结束了旧金山的一个传统——华人社区领袖会给他们青睐的候选人起中文名字,这一传统在某些圈子里备受珍视。而且,这个转变有可能导致名字太长,难以记住,甚至令人尴尬,因为音译名字的字符可能会在中文中构成奇怪的意思。

Fiona Ma, the California state treasurer, backed the legislative effort in 2019 after inconsistent policies had resulted in her Chinese name being changed without her knowledge.

加州财务长菲奥娜·马在2019年支持了这项立法,此前,不一致的政策导致她的中文名字在她不知情的情况下被更改。

Ms. Ma, the daughter of immigrants from China, had used her given Chinese name — 馬世雲, meaning “Horse Worldly Cloud” — on the ballot since the early 2000s, when she first ran for the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. She said she had always taken pride in her name, and the Chinese-language media had long referred to her by it. But Ms. Ma learned that her name had been changed to a transliteration on the June 2018 ballot.

菲奥娜·马是中国移民的女儿,自21世纪初第一次竞选旧金山参事委员会成员以来,她一直在投票中使用自己的中文名字马世云,意思是“马,世间的云”。她说,她一直以自己的名字为傲,中文媒体也一直用这个名字称呼她。但她得知,在2018年6月的选票上,她的名字被改成了音译。

The legislation that Ms. Ma sponsored set new ground rules. She wanted to ensure that candidates with a legitimate claim to a Chinese name could use them, but also that others not gain an unfair advantage by making up flattering names.

马世云发起的这项立法制定了新的基本规则。她希望确保对中文姓名有正当要求的候选人可以使用这些姓名,但也想确保其他人不会因为编造好听的名字而获得不公平的优势。

“If it’s a good name, like ‘Most Amazing Trustworthy Person’ or ‘Pro Public Safety,’ then it could make a difference,” Ms. Ma said.

“如果那是一个好名字,比如‘最值得信赖的人’或‘公共安全专家’,那么它可能会造成影响,”马世云说。

At a recreation center in San Francisco’s Richmond District, some voters said that a candidate’s name has less impact on whom they choose than what one has done. Mr. Le said between games of ping pong that it mattered more to him whether candidates addressed the needs of the Chinese community.

在旧金山里士满区的一个娱乐中心,一些选民说,比起名字,还是候选人的作为更能影响他们的选择。乐洪在打乒乓球的间隙说,对他来讲,候选人是否能满足华人社区的需求更重要。

“If you care, we’ll know your name,” he said.

“如果你关心我们,我们就会知道你的名字,”他说。

18nat chinese ballot 02 jzwt master1050珍·诺索科夫是今年3月首次竞选旧金山民主党县中央委员会的候选人,她被告知不能在选票上使用她提交的中文名字。

Jen Nossokoff, a first-time candidate running for the San Francisco Democratic County Central Committee in March and for the Board of Supervisors in November, said she received a name, 高素貞, from a Chinese supporter last summer. The name is pronounced Gou Sou-zing in Cantonese, and calls to mind a well-known Chinese folk character who is regarded as a symbol of kindheartedness.

珍·诺索科夫今年3月首次竞选旧金山民主党县中央委员会,11月竞选参事委员会。她说,去年夏天,她从一位中国支持者那里得到了一个名字“高素贞”。这个名字粤语读作“Gou Sou-zing”,让人想起一个著名的中国民间神话人物,认为是心地善良的象征。

“It means integrity,” she said. “It means ambition.”

“它意味着正直,”她说。“它意味着雄心。”

She printed the name on her campaign signs, many of which hang in the windows of her neighbors’ homes.

她把自己的名字印在竞选标语上,其中很多标语挂在邻里的窗户上。

But the name was rejected by the Department of Elections, which recently assigned her a transliterated name, 珍·諾索科夫, or Zan Nok-sok-fo-fu in Cantonese — a hodgepodge moniker that has none of the lofty symbolism of her desired name.

但这个名字被选举管理局的否决,该机构最近给她取了一个音译的名字——珍·诺索科夫,粤语读作“Zan Nok-sok-fo-fu”——一个东拼西凑的别名,没有她想要的那个名字里那种崇高的象征意义。

Voters are now casting their ballots for the March 5 election, and Ms. Nossokoff said it’s confusing that the name on her campaign literature doesn’t match the one on the ballot. She said the mandated name change was unfair because her opponent in the supervisor’s race, the incumbent Connie Chan, is the one who notified the Department of Elections that it was violating state law.

选民们正在为3月5日的选举投票,诺索科夫说,她的竞选资料上的名字与选票上的名字不符,这令人困惑。她说,强制改名是不公平的,因为她在参事委员会竞选中的对手、现任参事的康妮·陈(Connie Chan),就是那个向选举管理局举报她改名违反州法律的人。

Ms. Chan, 45, a native of Hong Kong, moved to San Francisco’s Chinatown with her mother and younger brother when she was 13. Her given name was Szeman, but she quickly changed it after arriving in the United States because, she said, it “sounds like semen.”

45岁的康妮·陈是香港人,13岁时随母亲和弟弟搬到了旧金山的唐人街。她的名字是陈诗敏,但到了美国后她很快就改了名字,因为她说,诗敏“听起来像semen”(意为“精液”。——译注)。

Instead, she joined legions of other Chinese girls her age and officially changed her name to honor Connie Chung, the trailblazing news anchor.

她加入了许多同龄华裔女孩的行列,正式改名为康妮,向开拓性的新闻主播宗毓华(Connie Chung)致敬。

Ms. Chan, knowing the state had passed the 2019 law, wrote a letter of inquiry last fall to the city’s Department of Elections. It’s still unclear why the city wasn’t abiding by state law — the elections chief John Arntz said he didn’t know — and the Board of Supervisors unanimously directed Mr. Arntz’s department to comply.

去年秋天,康妮·陈得知该州已经通过了那部2019年法案,就给该市的选举管理局写了一封问询信。目前尚不清楚该市为何不遵守这项州法律——选举负责人约翰·阿恩茨说自己不知道——参事委员会全票表决要求阿恩茨的部门遵守该法律。

18nat chinese ballot 01 jzwt master1050"我强烈地感觉到,我们的中文名字不是一种时尚潮流,"参事康妮·陈说,"这是文化挪用"。

Mr. Arntz said that candidates can use a birth certificate or even a wedding invitation to prove they have a legitimate claim to a Chinese name. Otherwise, the city will provide their transliterated names.

阿恩茨说,候选人可以使用出生证明甚至是婚礼请柬来证明他们对一个中文名字有正当诉求。否则,市政府将提供他们的音译名字。

“I feel strongly that our Chinese names are not a trend,” Ms. Chan said. “It indicates a relationship with the community that I’m not sure they’ve worked hard to build. It’s cultural appropriation.”

“我坚定地认为,我们的中文名字不是一种时尚潮流,”康妮·陈说。“而是与社区的联系的表现,我不确定那些人是否努力建立了这种联系。这是文化挪用。”

Ms. Chan has bestowed Chinese names on white colleagues in the past. When Supervisor Matt Dorsey was the spokesman for the city attorney in 2016, he wanted a Chinese name that could appear consistently in the Chinese press rather than having reporters come up with different translated versions in different outlets.

康妮·陈过去曾给白人同事起过中文名字。2016年,当市检察官马特·多尔西担任该市检察官发言人时,他想要一个能够在中文媒体上保持一致的中文名字,而不是让记者在不同的媒体上使用不同的翻译版本。

Ms. Chan, then a City Hall aide herself, thought he had demonstrated his commitment to the Chinese community through his years of public service. She gave him a name that sounded similar to Matt Dorsey and had a pleasant meaning.

当时担任市政厅助理的康妮·陈认为,他多年的公共服务证明了他对华人社区的承诺。她给他起了一个名字,发音和马特·多尔西接近,还有可爱的寓意。

Well, sort of.

可以这么说吧。

He’s now known in the Chinese community as 麥德誠: “Kind Barley.”

他现在在华人社区被称为麦德诚——“道德诚实的大麦”。


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KEITH BRADSHER

2024年2月20日

Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times

China’s BYD was a battery manufacturer trying its hand at building cars when it showed off its newest model in 2007. American executives at the Guangzhou auto show gaped at the car’s uneven purple paint job and the poor fit of its doors.

中国的比亚迪最初尝试造车时曾是一家电池制造商,它在2007年展示了自己的最新车型。在广州车展上看到这辆涂着不均匀的紫色油漆、车门和门框尺寸不合的汽车时,美国的高管们目瞪口呆。

“They were the laughingstock of the industry,” said Michael Dunne, a China auto industry analyst.

“他们曾是这个行业的笑柄,”中国汽车行业分析师邓凯(Michael Dunne) 说。

Nobody is laughing at BYD now.

现在没人嘲笑比亚迪了。

The company passed Tesla in worldwide sales of fully electric cars late last year. BYD is building assembly lines in Brazil, Hungary, Thailand and Uzbekistan and preparing to do so in Indonesia and Mexico. It is rapidly expanding exports to Europe. And the company is on the cusp of passing Volkswagen Group, which includes Audi, as the market leader in China.

去年年底,这家公司在全球纯电动汽车的销量上超过了特斯拉。比亚迪正在巴西、匈牙利、泰国和乌兹别克斯坦建设装配线,并计划在印度尼西亚和墨西哥建装配线。公司正在迅速扩大对欧洲的出口,并即将超越(包括奥迪在内的)大众集团,成为中国市场的领先者。

BYD’s sales, over 80 percent of them in China, have grown by about a million cars in each of the past two years. The last automaker to accomplish that in even one year in the American market was General Motors — and that was in 1946, after G.M. had suspended passenger car sales during the four preceding years because of World War II.

比亚迪的销量80%以上来自中国,过去两年的销量每年增长约100万辆。在美国市场,上一家仅实现一年这种增长的车企是通用汽车公司,那是1946年,它的乘用车销售因第二次世界大战停了四年之后。

“BYD’s growth is unlike anything the industry has seen in many decades,” said Matt Anderson, curator of transportation at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Mich.

“比亚迪的增长在汽车行业几十年的历史上未曾见过,”亨利·福特博物馆负责交通项目的馆长马特·安德森说。该博物馆位于密歇根州迪尔伯恩。

Based in Shenzhen, the hub of China’s electronics industry, BYD has shown how Chinese carmakers can tap the country’s dominance of electrical products. No company has benefited as much from China’s embrace of battery-electric cars and plug-in gasoline-electric cars. These vehicles together make up 40 percent of China’s car market, the world’s largest, and are expected to be more than half next year. Like most Chinese automakers, BYD doesn’t sell its cars in America because Trump-era tariffs remain in place, but BYD does sell buses in the United States.

比亚迪的总部设在中国电子工业中心深圳,它向人们展示了中国汽车制造商如何利用中国在电子产品领域的主导地位。对于中国对纯电动汽车和插电式混合动力汽车的欣然接受,没有一家公司的受益程度可与比亚迪媲美。这两种汽车目前合计占中国汽车市场(全球最大市场)40%的份额,预计明年将超过一半。与大多数中国车企一样,比亚迪不在美国销售汽车,因为特朗普时代的关税仍然存在,但比亚迪可以在美国销售公交车。

00china byd 04 zvqt master1050祝贺客户购买比亚迪车,摄于深圳,这里是中国电子工业的中心,也是比亚迪总部所在地。00china byd 01 zvqt master1050比亚迪的座右铭是“成就你的梦想”,据公司披露,从2008到2022年,比亚迪从政府获得了相当于26亿美元的扶持。

BYD is leading China’s export push in electric cars, and is rapidly building the world’s largest car carrier ships to transport them. The first of the ships, the BYD Explorer No. 1, is on its maiden voyage from Shenzhen with 5,000 electric cars on board, and is expected to arrive in the Netherlands by Feb. 21.

比亚迪正在引领中国的电动车出口,并正在为运送这些汽车迅速建造世界上最大的汽车运输船。这些船中的第一艘“比亚迪探索者一号”已在首航途中,载着5000辆电动汽车从深圳出发,预计将于2月21日到达荷兰。

With China’s and BYD’s success has come more scrutiny.

中国和比亚迪在电动车方面的成功也已引发了外界更多的审视。

Elon Musk, the chief executive of Tesla, warned about the strength of Chinese electric car exports in a company earnings call in January. “Frankly, I think if there are not trade barriers established, they will pretty much demolish most other companies in the world,” he said.

特斯拉的首席执行官埃隆·马斯克在今年1月的公司财报电话会议上对中国电动车出口的强劲势头发出了警告。“坦率地说,我认为如果没有贸易壁垒的话,他们很可能把世界上绝大多数竞争对手几乎摧毁,”他说。

The rapid gains by BYD and other Chinese automakers in Europe have prompted a European Union investigation of Chinese government subsidies and could result in tariffs. BYD’s annual reports show a total of $2.6 billion in government assistance from 2008 through 2022. And that does not include other help, like making sure that taxi companies in BYD’s hometown buy only BYD electric cars.

比亚迪和其他中国车企在欧洲市场的快速增长已促使欧盟对中国政府的补贴进行调查,可能导致征收关税。比亚迪的年报显示,从2008年到2022年,政府为其提供了总额达26亿美元的帮助。这还不包括其他帮助,比如确保比亚迪总部所在地的出租车公司只买比亚迪的电动车。

BYD declined to comment about subsidies. In a statement, the company said the BYD Explorer No. 1, its new ship, “signifies a significant milestone for BYD as it expands into international markets and contributes to the development of the global new-energy vehicle industry.”

比亚迪拒绝就补贴置评。公司在一份声明中表示,其新船比亚迪探索者一号“标志着比亚迪拓展国际市场的一个重要里程碑,为全球新能源汽车行业的发展做出贡献”。

China has built enough factories to make more than twice as many cars as its market can buy. That has led to a price war in China, particularly between BYD and Tesla, with discounting that has inflicted heavy losses. One of BYD’s newest models, the subcompact Seagull, starts at less than $11,000.

中国已建成了足够多的电动汽车工厂,产量是国内需求的两倍多。这已导致了中国市场的电动车价格战,尤其是在比亚迪与特斯拉之间,打折已给公司造成了严重损失。比亚迪的最新车型之一,超小型的海鸥,起价只有7.38万元。

00china byd 05 zvqt master1050载着5000辆电动汽车的“比亚迪探索者一号”在前往荷兰途中经停新加坡。

A real estate crisis and a falling stock market are now making Chinese consumers warier about buying a car at all. But BYD’s low manufacturing costs have left it in a better position than most rivals to survive any long slowdown in sales and industry shakeout.

房地产危机和股市下跌现已让中国消费者对买车更加谨慎。但与大多数竞争对手相比,低廉的制造成本使得比亚迪在销售放缓的长期趋势和行业震荡中生存下来的能力更强大。

BYD’s chairman, Wang Chuanfu, founded the company in 1995 to make batteries for Motorola and other consumer electronics companies. He had studied at Central South University in Changsha, an elite institution famed for battery chemistry research. But he dreamed of making cars.

比亚迪董事长王传福于1995年创立了这家公司,它曾为摩托罗拉和其他电子消费产品公司生产电池。王传福曾在长沙的中南大学读书,那是一所以电池化学研究闻名的精英学府。但他的梦想是造车。

In 2003, BYD bought a factory in Xi’an that was building gasoline-powered cars. But the company had trouble at the start, gaining an early reputation for building clunkers. In a visit to the factory in 2006, a large repair area at the end of the assembly line was clogged with newly built cars that already needed more work.

2003年,比亚迪在西安收购了一家生产汽油动力汽车的工厂。但公司一开始就遇到了麻烦,早期因质量不好而声名不佳。记者2006年参观这座工厂时,曾在装配线的末端看到一个大型维修区,堆满了刚刚制造完成但已经需要进一步维修的汽车。

BYD’s sales grew as the Chinese market soared. Warren E. Buffett bought a nearly 10 percent stake for $230 million in 2008, giving BYD not just a cash infusion but also global cachet. The same year, Mr. Wang promised to start exporting battery-electric cars to the United States within two years.

随着中国汽车市场的快速增长,比亚迪的销量也在增长。2008年,沃伦·巴菲特以2.3亿美元购买了比亚迪近10%的股份,这不仅给它注入了现金,也带来了全球知名度。王传福曾在同年承诺,两年内开始向美国出口电动车。

But electric cars at the time cost a lot to build and had limited range, and Mr. Wang had to scotch his plans to enter the American market. In an interview in 2011, he second-guessed his emphasis on battery-electric cars. Automakers should focus on gasoline-electric hybrids, he declared. He added, “There is still tremendous potential in the Chinese market for electric cars.”

但当时的电动车制造成本很高,续航里程有限,王传福不得不放弃了进入美国市场的计划。他在2011年的一次采访中动摇了他对纯电动车的重视。他宣称,汽车制造商应该把重点放在油电混合动力车上。他还补充说,“电动车在中国市场仍有巨大潜力。”

00china byd 07 zvqt master1050比亚迪创始人兼董事长王传福的母校中南大学以电池研究闻名。

By 2012, car production in China had caught up with demand. Buyers became choosier. BYD’s car sales and stock price plunged as multinationals offered more stylish models. Industry executives and analysts questioned whether BYD had a future.

到2012年时,中国的汽车产量已经满足了需求。买家变得更加挑剔。随着跨国公司提供更时尚的车型,比亚迪的汽车销量和股价暴跌。行业高管们和分析师们曾对比亚迪是否有未来表示怀疑。

But Mr. Wang proceeded to make two risky bets that paid off.

但王传福继而投下两笔冒险的赌注,它们都得到了回报。

In 2016, he hired Wolfgang Egger, a prominent Audi designer, who in turn hired hundreds more car engineers with bold tastes. They completely redesigned BYD’s models.

2016年,他聘请了奥迪的著名设计师沃尔夫冈·埃格,后者又聘请了几百名品味大胆的汽车工程师。他们对比亚迪的车型进行了彻底的重新设计。

Mr. Wang also figured out how to replace the industry’s standard chemicals in rechargeable lithium batteries — nickel, cobalt and manganese — with cheaper iron and phosphate. But early batteries made from the inexpensive chemical compounds ran out of juice quickly and had to be recharged after even short trips.

可充电的锂电池的行业标准是使用化学物质镍钴锰酸锂(又名三元锂),王传福找到了用更便宜的磷酸铁锂取代三元锂的方法。但最初用廉价化合物制造的电池续航旅程很短,即使短途旅行也需要充电。

In 2020, BYD introduced its Blade batteries, which closed most of the so-called range gap with nickel-cobalt batteries at a fraction of what they cost.

2020年,比亚迪推出了“刀片电池”,这种电池基本弥补了在续航里程上与三元锂电池的差距,但成本极低。

Tesla began making and selling large numbers of cars in China the same year, and enthusiasm for electric cars swept the nation. BYD was ready with inexpensive battery chemistries and Mr. Egger’s new designs.

特斯拉在同一年开始在中国大量生产和销售汽车,电动车热潮席卷全国。比亚迪用廉价的电池化学材料和埃格的新设计为这个热潮做好了准备。

Tesla also began using lithium iron phosphate batteries in less expensive models. BYD still sells mostly cheaper cars with lower range, while Tesla mostly sells costlier cars with more range.

特斯拉也开始在较便宜的车型中使用磷酸铁锂电池。比亚迪仍主要销售续航里程较短的廉价车,而特斯拉主要销售续航里程较长的高档车。

The Swiss bank UBS found last year that a BYD Seal electric hatchback sedan cost 35 percent less to make than a slightly smaller Volkswagen ID.3 of similar quality made in Europe. The savings came only partly from the cheaper lithium iron phosphate batteries.

瑞银去年发现,比亚迪的掀背式设计海豹电动轿车的制造成本比欧洲制造的同等品质、稍微小点的大众ID.3车型低 35%。节省的成本仅部分来自更便宜的磷酸铁锂电池。

BYD makes three-quarters of the Seal’s parts. Like Tesla, BYD uses only a few electronic systems in each car. By contrast, VW outsources up to two-thirds of its components. BYD also has benefited from lower labor costs in China, although those have risen as factories compete to hire skilled workers.

海豹车型四分之三的零部件由比亚迪自己生产。与特斯拉一样,比亚迪每辆车只使用几个电子系统。相比之下,大众汽车将多达三分之二的零部件外包。比亚迪也受益于中国更低的劳动力成本,尽管随着工厂在雇用技术工人上展开竞争,劳动力成本已在上升。

00china byd 08 zvqt master1050在去年的上海车展上展示的比亚迪豪华车型仰望。00china byd 03 zvqt master1050比亚迪总部。公司不久前宣布,将投资1000亿元研发自动驾驶技术。

BYD now has its own walled town in Shenzhen, a southeastern city next to Hong Kong. An airport-style monorail carries workers from 18-story company apartments to BYD’s office towers and research labs.

比亚迪在毗邻香港的南方城市深圳的工业园像是一个封闭小镇。里面有机场使用的那种单轨列车,将工人从18层高的公司公寓送到比亚迪的办公楼和研究实验室。

Liu Qiangqiang, an engineer at the Shenzhen center, said the staff of his car development team had almost tripled since he joined the company from General Motors 15 months ago.

深圳园区的工程师刘强强(音)说,自从他15个月前从通用汽车跳槽到比亚迪以来,他所在的汽车开发团队的员工人数几乎增加了两倍。

“The pace is fast,” he said.

“节奏很快,”他说。

After dismissing autonomous driving a year ago, BYD swung into action when the consumer electronics companies Huawei and Xiaomi introduced cars with considerable autonomous driving abilities. Mr. Wang announced in January that BYD had 4,000 engineers working on assisted driving, a limited form of autonomous technology that works mainly on highways and large roads, and would invest $14 billion in the technology.

一年前,比亚迪曾对自动驾驶不以为然,但当消费电子产品公司华为和小米推出了具有相当强的自动驾驶能力的汽车后,比亚迪加入到这个行列中来。王传福今年1月宣布,比亚迪已招聘了4000名工程师组成辅助驾驶(一种有限形式的自动驾驶技术,主要适用于高速公路和大型道路)团队,并将在该技术上投资1000亿元。

BYD has a lingering advantage over Tesla: Mr. Wang’s decision by 2011 to develop plug-in hybrid cars, which account for nearly half of BYD’s sales.

比亚迪仍对特斯拉拥有一个仍然存在的优势:王传福在2011年做出的开发插电式混合动力汽车的决定,这种车的销量占比亚迪汽车销量的近一半。

Li Jingyu, a salesman at a BYD dealership in Shenzhen, said many families bought a hybrid as their first car so they could drive at Lunar New Year back to their ancestral villages. Most villages in China now have chargers, Mr. Li said, but not enough for the throngs of visiting drivers at Lunar New Year, which started on Friday night.

深圳的一家比亚迪经销店的销售员李景宇(音)说,许多家庭买第一辆车时会买一辆混合动力车,这样他们就能在春节期间开车回自己的老家。李先生说,虽然中国的大多数村庄现在都有充电桩,但春节期间(今年的春节假期始于2月9日)有太多人回家探亲时,充电桩就不够用了。

“People are just worried,” he said, “about the waiting time.”

“人们担心等的时间太长,”他说。

KEITH BRADSHER

2024年2月19日

2021年,位于中国西北部新疆地区首府乌鲁木齐郊区的一家大众汽车合资工厂。该公司表示正在评估合资企业的未来。 Mark Schiefelbein/Associated Press

Volkswagen Group is reviewing the future of its joint venture in the Xinjiang region of northwestern China and another German industrial giant is starting to sell its stakes there following new international scrutiny of forced labor using predominantly Muslim ethnic groups.

大众汽车集团正在评估其在新疆合资企业的未来,而在国际社会对当地以穆斯林为主的少数族群的强迫劳动状况进行新的审查后,另一家德国工业巨头开始出售在当地的股份。

Volkswagen said last week that it was in discussions with one of its main joint venture partners in China, the state-owned Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation, in the wake of allegations of human rights violations at their joint venture in Xinjiang.

大众汽车上周表示,在新疆合资企业被指控侵犯人权后,该公司正在与它在中国的主要合资伙伴之一、国有的上汽集团展开磋商。

The companies are examining “the future direction of the J.V.’s business activities in Xinjiang,” VW said, adding that “various scenarios are currently being examined intensively.”

大众汽车表示,两家公司正在研究“合资企业在新疆业务活动的未来方向”,并补充说,“目前正在深入研究各种可能。”

BASF of Germany, the world’s largest chemical company, disclosed on Feb. 9 that it began moving late last year to divest its stakes in two manufacturing joint ventures in Xinjiang.

全球最大的化工公司德国巴斯夫公司2月9日披露,该公司去年底开始剥离在新疆两家制造合资企业的股份。

BASF said that while its audits had not found human rights violations at either operation, “recently published reports related to the joint venture partner contain serious allegations that indicate activities inconsistent with BASF’s values.”

巴斯夫表示,虽然其审计没有发现这两家工厂存在侵犯人权行为,但“最近发布的有关合资伙伴的报告包含严重指控,表明其活动不符合巴斯夫的价值观”。

The Chinese government has strongly opposed any move by multinational corporations to distance themselves from commercial activity in Xinjiang, a sparsely populated region four times the size of California.

中国政府强烈反对跨国公司的任何与新疆商业活动保持距离的举动,新疆是一个人口稀少的地区,面积是加州的四倍。

In a written reply to a question about Volkswagen and BASF, the foreign ministry on Sunday called allegations about forced labor in Xinjiang “a lie of the century concocted by anti-China forces to discredit China” and to cut off China’s economy from foreign markets. The ministry added, “We hope that the enterprises concerned will respect the facts, recognize right and wrong and cherish the opportunity to invest and develop in Xinjiang.”

在周日对有关大众汽车和巴斯夫问题的书面答复中,中国外交部称有关新疆强迫劳动的指控是“反华势力炮制的世纪谎言,目的是抹黑中国”,并切断中国经济与外国市场的联系。外交部还表示,“希望有关企业尊重事实,认清是非,珍惜在新疆投资发展的机会。”

VW and BASF, which have had extensive investments and sales in China for decades, are among the companies increasingly caught between Beijing on one side and Western governments, shareholders and human rights groups on the other. The scrutiny on German companies is particularly sharp now as European governments grapple with how to become less reliant on China.

几十年来在中国进行了大量投资和销售的大众汽车和巴斯夫日益陷入北京与西方政府、股东和人权组织之间的夹缝中。随着欧洲各国政府努力减少对中国的依赖,目前对德国企业的审查尤为严厉。

Pressure on multinationals has increased in the past few months as American customs officials have gained experience in investigating whether imports from China violate the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act of 2021. The law bars the import of any goods from China that were made with forced labor, particularly goods made with forced labor in Xinjiang. Uyghurs, who are predominantly Muslim, are the largest ethnic group there, making up 45 percent of the population according to a census in 2020.

过去几个月,随着美国海关官员在调查来自中国的进口产品是否违反2021年颁布的《防止强迫维吾尔人劳动法》方面积累更多经验,跨国公司面临的压力有所增加。该法案禁止从中国进口任何使用强迫劳动制造的商品,特别是在新疆用强迫劳动生产的商品。以穆斯林为主的维吾尔族是那里最大的民族,根据2020年的人口普查,维吾尔族占新疆人口的45%。

00China Xinjiang 02 gbtm master10502021年,维吾尔人在华盛顿的美国国务院外举行集会反对中国政府。

Companies have found it increasingly difficult to figure out whether their suppliers and joint venture partners are using components or materials that are from northwestern China and may have been produced with forced labor. China does not allow independent supply chain audits in Xinjiang and has even detained employees of foreign due diligence companies who work in far less politically sensitive places like Beijing and Shanghai.

针对供应商和合资伙伴是否使用了来自中国西北部且可能由强迫劳动生产的零部件或材料,企业发现他们越来越难以弄清楚这一点。中国不允许在新疆进行独立的供应链审计,甚至拘留了在北京和上海等地工作的外国尽职调查公司的员工,这些地方的政治敏感度比新疆低得多。

Volkswagen said that it had encountered delays in delivering some imported vehicles to dealers in the United States because of “a customs issue” at American ports. The company said that it needed to replace a small electronic component but did not say how many cars were affected.

大众汽车表示,由于美国港口的“海关问题”,该公司在向美国经销商交付部分进口汽车时遇到了延误。该公司表示需要更换一个小型电子元件,但没有透露有多少辆汽车受到影响。

VW did not say that the component was from Xinjiang but noted, “When we receive information on human rights risks or potential infringements, we strive to remedy them as quickly as possible.”

大众汽车未表示该零件来自新疆,但指出,“当我们收到有关人权风险或潜在侵权行为的信息时,我们会努力尽快采取补救措施。”

Nathan Picarsic, a co-founder of Horizon Advisory, a supply chain geopolitics analysis firm in Washington, said that hundreds and possibly thousands of Audis and other Volkswagen Group vehicles, mostly equipped with four-cylinder engines, have been stopped at five American ports in recent weeks because they contain a component from Xinjiang that cannot easily be replaced. VW will try to deliver the cars by the end of March and is notifying customers of delays. The Financial Times first reported that the cars had been stopped at American ports.

位于华盛顿的供应链地缘政治分析公司地平线咨询(Horizon Advisory)的联合创始人内森·皮卡西克表示,最近几周内,已有数百、甚至可能数千辆奥迪和其他大众汽车集团的汽车(大部分配备四缸发动机)在美国五个港口被拦截,因为它们含有来自新疆的无法轻易被替换的零部件。大众汽车将努力在3月底之前交付汽车,该公司正在通知客户延迟交付的情况。《金融时报》率先报道了这些汽车在美国港口被拦截的情况。

Multinationals are also under pressure from shareholders. Union Investment, a big German asset management firm, had endorsed investments in Volkswagen last December after a report that found no forced labor. But the fund reversed course last week, saying the latest findings meant that investments in VW were incompatible with its corporate sustainability goals.

跨国公司也面临来自股东的压力。去年12月,德国大型资产管理公司联合投资审阅过一份声称没有发现强迫劳动的报告后,批准了对大众的投资。但该基金上周改变了立场,称最新调查结果意味着对大众的投资与其企业可持续发展目标不符。

Stephan Weil, the governor of Lower Saxony state in Germany and a member of Volkswagen’s board, called the latest findings “concerning.”

德国下萨克森州州长、大众董事会成员斯蒂芬·韦尔称,最新的调查结果“令人担忧”。

China has engaged in an extensive crackdown in Xinjiang over the past decade to combat what it describes as extremism among mainly Muslim ethnic minorities there. The crackdown followed a series of attacks in 2014 by militants, including assaults on two train stations and a morning market that left a total of 71 dead and over 300 injured according to official reports.

过去十年,中国在新疆进行了大规模镇压,以打击当地以穆斯林为主的少数民族中的极端主义。在那此前,武装分子在2014年发动了一系列袭击,目标包括两个火车站和一个早市,据官方报道,这些袭击共造成71人死亡,300多人受伤。

Under China’s leader, Xi Jinping, Xinjiang confined hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, Kazakhs and other Muslims in vast re-education camps, starting mainly in 2017. Xinjiang also embarked on a drive to allocate Uyghur villagers and laborers to jobs in factories. Chinese officials presented those transfer projects as an effort to lift Uyghurs out of poverty and absorb them in the economic mainstream. But the labor transfers have involved coercive pressure, quasi-military discipline and restrictions on movement, according to investigations by The New York Times, other news outlets and human rights researchers.

在中国领导人习近平领导下,主要从2017年开始,新疆将数十万维吾尔人、哈萨克人和其他穆斯林关进了庞大的再教育营。新疆还着手将维吾尔村民和劳工分配到工厂工作。中国官员表示,这些转移项目是为了让维吾尔人摆脱贫困,吸纳他们进入经济主流。但根据《纽约时报》、其他新闻媒体和人权研究者的调查,这些劳动力转移涉及强制压力、准军事管理和行动限制。

00China Xinjiang 03 gbtm master1050一名年轻的维吾尔女性在服装厂工作,这样的工作是北京的扶贫计划的一部分。

Adrian Zenz, director of China studies at Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, a nonprofit anti-communist group in Washington, found evidence in recent months of forced labor at a chemical company in Xinjiang that also has joint ventures with BASF. He then found evidence of forced labor at the Volkswagen joint venture.

近几个月,位于华盛顿的非营利反共产主义组织共产主义受害者纪念基金会的中国研究主任郑国恩(Adrian Zenz)在新疆的一家化工公司发现了强迫劳动的证据,该公司也与巴斯夫有合资企业。随后,他又在大众汽车的合资企业发现了强迫劳动的证据。

He shared the BASF evidence first with Germany’s Der Spiegel newsmagazine and the ZDF public-service television broadcaster. He shared the VW information first with the German newspaper Handelsblatt.

他首先将巴斯夫的强迫劳动证据分享给了德国新闻杂志《明镜》和公共服务电视广播公司ZDF。他首先与德国报纸《商报》分享了关于大众汽车的信息。

The VW information included a photo of Uyghur workers in military uniforms who had helped build a desert track in Xinjiang to test cars in extremely hot weather.

关于大众的信息包括一张穿军装的维吾尔工人的照片,他们在新疆参与了一条沙漠跑道的修建,用于在极端炎热的天气下测试汽车。

BASF and VW each said that they started setting up joint ventures in Xinjiang in 2013. That was when the Chinese government was encouraging investments in its impoverished far west but before it began its crackdown on ethnic minorities.

巴斯夫和大众均表示,它们于2013年开始在新疆建立合资企业。当时中国政府鼓励在贫困的西部地区投资,但还没有开始镇压少数民族。

VW said its joint venture in Xinjiang’s capital, Urumqi, had 650 employees before the pandemic and is now much smaller.

大众表示,该公司在新疆首府乌鲁木齐的合资企业在疫情前有650名员工,现在的规模已经小了很多。

BASF said that one of its joint venture factories, in which it holds a majority stake, has about 40 employees and makes a key ingredient for spandex. The other factory, in which BASF holds a minority stake, has 80 employees who make a chemical with broader uses, from pharmaceuticals to plastics.

巴斯夫表示,由该公司持有多数股权的一家合资工厂拥有约40名员工,生产氨纶的一种关键成分。巴斯夫持有少数股权的另一家工厂有80名员工,生产一种化学品,涉及从制药到塑料的广泛用途。

00China Xinjiang basf1 jgvk master1050位于德国路德维希港的巴斯夫总部。该公司表示,已于去年决定剥离其在新疆两家合资制造企业的股份。

BASF said it had decided last year to dispose of its stakes in both factories after concluding that they did not fit its goals for addressing climate change. The factories, located in Korla, another large city in Xinjiang, use a lot of coal. But BASF said it would now speed up the process of pulling out of the ventures.

巴斯夫表示,去年,该公司认为这两家工厂不符合其应对气候变化的目标,因此决定出售在这两家工厂的股份。这两家工厂位于新疆另一个大城市库尔勒,使用大量煤炭。但巴斯夫表示,现在将加快退出两家合资企业的进程。

China’s foreign minister, Wang Yi, asserted on Saturday that the government’s policies in Xinjiang have improved the lives of Uyghurs by providing jobs. “The so-called forced labor is only a groundless accusation,” Mr. Wang said during a question-and-answer session at the Munich Security Conference.

中国外交部长王毅周六声称,政府在新疆的政策通过提供就业机会改善了维吾尔人的生活。“至于所谓‘强迫劳动’更是欲加之罪,何患无辞,”王毅在慕尼黑安全会议的问答环节上说。

A further problem may lie ahead for VW and other automakers in China. Human Rights Watch issued a report on Feb. 1 asserting widespread use of forced labor by companies in Xinjiang that produce over 15 percent of China’s raw aluminum. The group accused automakers of not wanting to know where their suppliers of many aluminum parts actually obtain the metal.

大众和其他在华汽车制造商可能还面临着另一个问题。人权观察组织于2月1日发布了一份报告,称新疆的公司普遍使用强迫劳动,这些公司生产的铝占中国原铝产量的15%以上。该组织指责汽车制造商不想知道他们的许多铝零件供应商实际上是从哪里获得这种金属的。

The United States already prohibits the entry of products made from Xinjiang aluminum because of concerns that it is manufactured with forced labor.

出于对强迫劳动的担忧,美国已经禁止进口新疆铝制品。

VW said that it investigates any misconduct by suppliers, adding, “Serious violations, such as forced labor, can lead to termination of the contract with the supplier if no remedial action is taken.”

大众表示,将调查供应商的任何不当行为,并称,“如果供应商不采取补救措施,强迫劳动等严重违规行为可能导致与其合同终止。”


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MARK LANDLER

2024年2月19日

周五,阿列克谢·纳瓦尔尼的影像出现在俄罗斯驻伦敦大使馆。 Peter Nicholls/Reuters

In Munich, world leaders were left hushed and hollow-eyed, their annual security conference suddenly transformed into a wake. In London, demonstrators projected a giant image of Aleksei A. Navalny on to the facade of the Russian embassy. In Washington, an angry President Biden called a news conference to declare, “Make no mistake: Putin is responsible for Navalny’s death.”

在慕尼黑,世界各国领导人沉默不语,视线空洞,他们的年度安全会议突然变成了守灵会。在伦敦,示威者将阿列克谢·纳瓦尔尼的巨幅肖像投影到俄罗斯大使馆的外墙。在华盛顿,愤怒的拜登总统召开新闻发布会宣布,“毫无疑问:普京应对纳瓦尔尼的死负责。”

Rarely has the death of a single man summoned such a cascade of grief, anger and demands for justice.

很少有一个人的死会引发如此强烈的悲伤、愤怒和伸张正义的要求。

While many feared the worst for Mr. Navalny when he returned to Russia in early 2021 from Germany, where he had recovered from being poisoned, the news that he was gone still landed with a thunderclap. Governments, however cruel and repressive, often spare dissident figures, if only to avoid creating martyrs.

2021年初,中毒康复后的纳瓦尔尼从德国回到俄罗斯,当时很多人就担心他会面临更糟糕的局面,但他去世的消息仍然让人大吃一惊。无论多么残酷和专制的政府往往都会放过那些引人注目的异见人士,哪怕只是为了避免制造出殉道者。

In life, Mr. Navalny was often compared to Nelson Mandela, the anti-apartheid leader who languished in prison for 27 years before emerging to lead a democratic South Africa. In death, Mr. Navalny now draws comparisons to the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the civil rights leader who fought for racial justice and whose assassination in 1968 was a catalytic event in America.

纳瓦尔尼生前经常被比作纳尔逊·曼德拉,这位反种族隔离的领袖在监狱里煎熬了27年,出狱后领导了民主的南非。纳瓦尔尼去世后,人们又把他与马丁·路德·金牧师相提并论,这位民权领袖为种族正义而战,1968年被暗杀,在美国成为具有催化作用的事件。

Whether Mr. Navalny’s death will reverberate through the ages like Dr. King’s is not yet clear, of course. Even the circumstances are still shrouded in mystery, with only a cryptic report from a remote Arctic penal colony that the 47-year-old “convict” had collapsed after a walk. His family hasn’t received his body, and his mother was told that he died of “sudden death syndrome,” without further explanation.

当然,纳瓦尔尼的死是否会像马丁·路德·金一样在各个时代引起反响,目前尚不得而知。就连他去世的情节也仍然笼罩在神秘之中,只有一份来自偏远北极流放地的神秘报告称,这位47岁的“罪犯”在散步后晕倒。家人还没有收到他的遗体,他的母亲被告知他死于“猝死综合征”,但没有进一步的解释。

Much has changed since Mr. Navalny began his career as an opposition politician more than a decade ago, a charismatic figure who appealed to restless middle-class residents of Moscow and who harnessed social media to counter the corruption of President Vladimir V. Putin’s Russia.

自从十多年前,纳瓦尔尼以反对派政治人士的身份开始职业生涯以来,很多事情发生了变化。纳瓦尔尼是一个魅力非凡的人物,对不安的莫斯科中产阶级居民很有吸引力,他利用社交媒体来对抗普京总统领导下俄罗斯的腐败。

18navalny galvanize mgvh master10502012年,纳瓦尔尼在莫斯科的一次集会上。

Mr. Putin’s troops are back on the march in neighboring Ukraine, emboldened by their victory in the key town of Avdiivka. Western leaders in Munich fretted about the loss of support for Ukraine among some Republicans in the United States Congress. There was no immediate sign that Mr. Navalny’s death had converted skeptics of military aid.

普京的军队因在重镇阿夫迪伊夫卡取得胜利而倍受鼓舞,重新开始了在邻国乌克兰的推进。在慕尼黑的西方领导人担心美国国会中的一些共和党人不再支持乌克兰。目前还没有迹象表明纳瓦尔尼的死让那些对军事援助持怀疑态度的人改变了看法。

Efforts to build a genuinely global coalition against Russia’s war never got off the ground, with China, India and Iran continuing to do business with Moscow. Last June, South Africa eagerly welcomed the Russian foreign minister, Sergey Lavrov, at a meeting to discuss a new world order no longer dominated by the West.

由于中国、印度和伊朗继续保持与莫斯科的往来,真正的反俄罗斯战争全球联盟的努力从未开始。去年6月,南非在一次会议上热烈欢迎俄罗斯外长谢尔盖·拉夫罗夫,该会议旨在讨论不再由西方主导的世界新秩序。

And yet, as the tributes to Mr. Navalny poured in and the flowers piled up at memorial sites around the world and in Russia, where the police detained more than 400 people who dared to leave bouquets in the snow, critics of Mr. Putin argued that Mr. Navalny’s death could be a galvanizing moment.

然而,随着对纳瓦尔尼的悼念蜂拥而至,鲜花堆积在世界各地和俄罗斯的纪念场所,在俄罗斯,警方拘留了400多名敢于在雪地里留下花束的人。普京的批评者认为,纳瓦尔尼的死可能是一个鼓动人心的时刻。

“Aleksei Navalny is a globally recognized and beloved individual who was snuffed out by a killer,” said William F. Browder, an American-born British financier who has campaigned against human-rights abuses in Russia. “This is a classic good-versus-evil story. These types of symbols and stories have a resonance that goes so far beyond the petty squabbles of the world we live in.”

“阿列克谢·纳瓦尔尼是一个受到全球认可和爱戴的人,他被一个杀手所扼杀,”在美国出生的英国金融家威廉·布劳德说,他一直致力于反对俄罗斯侵犯人权的行为。“这是典型的善恶斗争故事。这种象征和故事所产生的共鸣,远远超出了我们所处世界的琐碎争吵。”

Mr. Browder cited a precedent. After Sergei L. Magnitsky, his lawyer and auditor, died in a Moscow jail cell under suspicious circumstances, he campaigned for countries to pass laws that would blacklist Russia for human-rights violations. The European Union, he said, was among the most reluctant.

布劳德提起了一个先例。在他的律师兼审计员谢尔盖·马格尼茨基在可疑情况下死于莫斯科的一间牢房后,他呼吁各国通过法律,将俄罗斯列入侵犯人权的黑名单。他说,欧盟是最不情愿的政府之一。

But after Mr. Navalny suffered the near-fatal poisoning with a nerve agent in 2020, widely believed to be perpetrated by Russian agents, Mr. Browder said sentiment hardened against Moscow. A few months later, the E.U. adopted the legislation.

但在2020年纳瓦尔尼遭遇神经毒剂毒害险些丧命后——人们普遍认为此事是俄罗斯特工所为——布劳德说,对莫斯科的态度变得强硬了。几个月后,欧盟通过了这项立法。

Mr. Browder, who likened Mr. Navalny to Dr. King, said he believed that his death would make it politically untenable for American lawmakers to be viewed as accommodating Mr. Putin. In the short run, he said, it would also make it harder for at least some Republicans in Congress to hold up additional military aid to Ukraine.

布劳德把纳瓦尔尼比作马丁·路德·金,他说,他相信,纳瓦尔尼死后,任何看起来在迎合普京的美国议员在政治上都会无法立足。他说,从短期来看,这也会让国会中至少一部分共和党人更难阻止向乌克兰提供更多军事援助。

18navalny galvanize pvkw master1050周六,警方在莫斯科纪念纳瓦尔尼的集会上拘捕了一名男子。

In Munich for the conference, Mr. Browder lobbied Western officials to press Russia for the release of other Russian political prisoners, like Vladimir Kara-Murza, who was sentenced to 25 years for treason last April. Whether such appeals would sway Mr. Putin, he acknowledged, was far from clear.

在慕尼黑参加会议期间,布劳德游说西方官员向俄罗斯施压,要求释放其他俄罗斯政治犯,比如去年4月因叛国罪被判处25年徒刑的弗拉基米尔·卡拉-穆尔扎。他承认,这些呼吁是否会影响普京还远不清楚。

Michael A. McFaul, a former American ambassador to Russia who was a friend of Mr. Navalny’s and has compared him to Mandela, said he, too, believed that the circumstances of his death would change the tone of the debate over Ukraine on Capitol Hill. He also walked the halls in Munich over the weekend and said the shock was palpable.

前美国驻俄罗斯大使迈克尔·麦克福尔是纳瓦尔尼的朋友,曾将他与曼德拉相提并论。麦克福尔说,他也认为纳瓦尔尼之死的具体情节会改变国会山有关乌克兰问题辩论的基调。他在周末前往慕尼黑的会议大厅,并表示,在那里,震惊之情显而易见。

“There was no doubt in my interactions with members of Congress, former American officials and European officials, that the horrific murder of Navalny was making it much more difficult to ignore the brutality of Putin,” Mr. McFaul said.

“我与国会议员、前美国官员和欧洲官员做了交流,毫无疑问,纳瓦尔尼的骇人遇难,让人们更加难以忽视普京的残暴,”麦克福尔说。

In addition to pushing for military aid, Mr. McFaul and others are campaigning for Western governments to use frozen Russian state funds to buy ammunition for Ukraine. Others have said these funds, estimated to be at least $300 billion, should be used to reconstruct the country after the war is over.

除了争取军事援助外,麦克福尔等人还在呼吁西方政府利用被冻结的俄罗斯国家资金为乌克兰购买弹药。还有人表示,这些估计至少有3000亿美元的资金应该用于战后的重建。

Within Russia, Mr. McFaul said, it was harder to predict the long-term effect of Mr. Navalny’s death. Mr. Putin faces less popular resistance than he did when Mr. Navalny began in politics, and he is operating in a world that generally does not hold autocrats to account. While Mr. Navalny had sympathizers in the government and business, Mr. McFaul said, his loss deprives Russia of a Mandela-like figure. In Mr. Putin’s repressive police state, he will not be easily replaced.

麦克福尔说,在俄罗斯国内,纳瓦尔尼之死的长期影响较难预测。与纳瓦尔尼开始从政时相比,普京面临的民众抵制有所减少,而且他所处的世界通常不会追究专制者的责任。麦克福尔说,虽然纳瓦尔尼在政界和商界都有同情者,但他的去世让俄罗斯失去了一位曼德拉式的人物。在普京的专制警察国家,他是难以替代的。

“His whole mission in life was to stay alive, to outlive this moment,” Mr. McFaul said. “Now you have to compare him to martyrs, and that’s a harder story. He was a uniquely charismatic, popular leader of the opposition, but there’s no obvious person to take that baton from him, except perhaps for his wife.”

“他一生的全部使命就是活下去,活过这一刻,”麦克福尔说。“现在你必须把他放入殉道者的行列,这是一个更加艰难的故事。他是一位独具魅力、广受欢迎的反对派领袖,但是没有什么明确的人选可以从他手中接过接力棒,也许除了他的妻子之外。”

18navalny galvanize fljm master1050纳瓦尔尼的遗孀尤利娅·纳瓦尔尼娅周五出席了慕尼黑安全会议。

Mr. McFaul was with Mr. Navalny’s widow, Yulia Navalnaya, the night before her husband’s death, and said they discussed his condition, but she had no inkling what he was facing. On Friday, she took the podium in Munich and riveted world leaders.

在纳瓦尔尼去世前一晚,麦克福尔与他的妻子尤利娅·纳瓦尔尼娅见了面。她说,两人讨论了纳瓦尔尼的病情,但她对纳瓦尔尼面临的情况一无所知。上周五,她登上了慕尼黑的讲台,吸引了世界各国领导人的目光。

“I want Putin and everyone around him — Putin’s friends, his government — to know that they will bear responsibility for what they have done to our country, to my family and to my husband,” a grief-stricken but composed Ms. Navalnaya said. “And this day will come very soon.”

“我希望普京和他身边的每个人——普京的朋友、他的政府——知道,他们将为自己对我们的国家、对我的家人和我的丈夫所做的一切承担责任,”纳瓦尔尼娅悲痛但却镇定自若地说。“这一天很快就会到来。”

The fact that Russia did not keep Mr. Navalny alive surprised Mr. McFaul, a longtime Russia expert who teaches at Stanford University. He said he did not expect it, even given the regime’s previous attempt to poison him. Others said it signified a new world, in which even dissident figures with a global profile were easily killed.

俄罗斯没有让纳瓦尔尼活下去,这让麦克福尔感到意外。麦克福尔长期研究俄罗斯问题,在斯坦福大学任教。他说,即使考虑到该政权之前曾试图毒死他,他也没有预料到会发生这样的事。还有人说,这标志着一个新世界的到来,在这个新世界里,即使是具有全球知名度的异见人士也很容易遭到杀害。

Mr. Navalny resisted the label of dissident, preferring to think of himself as a politician in the arena, even a future president of Russia. That drove his decision to return there, despite the near certainty that he would be arrested.

纳瓦尔尼拒绝给自己贴上异见人士的标签,他更愿意把自己看作参与竞逐的政治人士,甚至是俄罗斯未来的总统。这促使他决定回到俄罗斯,尽管他几乎肯定会被捕。

In doing so, Mr. Navalny set himself apart from Cold War-era dissidents like the physicist Andrei Sakharov or the politician Natan Sharansky, who faced persecution and in Mr. Sharansky’s case, imprisonment, becoming symbols of courageous resistance in the West.

纳瓦尔尼的做法令他有别于冷战时期的异见人士,比如物理学家安德烈·萨哈罗夫和政治人士纳坦·夏兰斯基,他们面临迫害,夏兰斯基还遭到监禁,在西方,他们成了勇敢抵抗的象征。

Such figures often had an air of inviolability. But these days, governments behave with more impunity, in part, analysts say, because the United States and other Western countries, burdened by their own political struggles, no longer present the united front of pressure they did in the 1970s and 1980s.

这样的人物往往有一种不可侵犯的感觉。但分析人士说,如今,政府的行为更加有恃无恐,部分原因是美国和其他西方国家受到自身政治斗争的拖累,不再像上世纪七八十年代那样,可以团结一致地施加压力。

“It’s a marker that tells us how the world has changed,” said Philippe Sands, a British human rights lawyer and writer. “Governments used to let these kinds of individuals live. Sometimes they’d lock them away for many years, but they didn’t knock them off. Now they just do away with them.”

“这是一个标志,告诉我们世界发生了怎样的变化,”英国人权律师、作家菲利普·桑兹说。“过去,政府会给这类人留条命。有时会把他们关押多年,但不会把他们除掉。现在,它们干脆把这些人都除掉了。”

“The countries that are doing this,” Mr. Sands added, “are more confident of their ability to do this.”

“正在这样做的国家,”桑兹还说,“对自己做这些的能力更有信心了。”

袁莉

2024年2月19日

Xinmei Liu

Like many Chinese people, Jacky hoped that he could make enough money investing in China’s stock markets to help pay for an apartment in a big city. But in 2015 he lost $30,000, and in 2021 he lost $80,000. After that, he shut down his trading account and started investing in Chinese funds that track stocks in the United States.

和许多中国人一样,杰基希望通过投资中国股市赚到足够的钱,以支付在大城市买房的费用。但2015年他亏损了3万美元,2021年又亏损了8万美元。之后,他关闭了自己的交易账户,开始投资追踪美国股市的中国基金。

It’s a perilous time for investors in China. Their main vehicle, so-called A shares of Chinese companies, fell more than 11 percent in 2023 and have continued their losses this year. Many investors have instead flocked to the exchange-traded funds that track foreign markets and that have been performing much better.

对于中国的投资者来说,这是一个危险的时期。他们的主要投资工具,即所谓的中国A股,在2023年跌幅超过11%,并在今年继续亏损。许多投资者转而涌向追踪外国市场的交易基金,这些基金的表现要好得多。

Putting money in stocks is inherently risky. But Chinese investors are experiencing something especially alarming: financial losses in the markets, declining home values and a government that doesn’t want any public discussion of what’s happening.

投资股市本来就有风险。但中国投资者正经历着特别令人担忧的事:市场上的财务损失、房屋价值的下降,而政府完全不愿让公众讨论正在发生什么。

With their frustrations piling up, Chinese investors recently found a way to vent that wouldn’t be quickly censored. They started leaving comments on an innocuous post about giraffe conservation on the official Weibo social media account of the U.S. Embassy in China. They lamented the poor performance of their portfolios and revealed their broader despair, anger and frustration. The giraffe post has been liked nearly one million times since Feb. 2, much more than what the embassy’s Weibo posts usually get. Many of the comments also offered admiration for the United States, as well as unhappiness about their own country.

随着不满情绪的堆积,中国投资者最近找到了一种不会很快被审查的发泄方式。他们开始在美国驻华大使馆官方微博一篇关于长颈鹿保护的无关帖子下留言。他们哀叹自己的投资组合表现不佳,并流露出更广泛的绝望、愤怒和不满。自2月2日以来,这条长颈鹿帖子已被点赞近一百万次,远高于使馆微博通常的点赞数量。许多评论还表达了对美国的钦佩以及对自己国家的不满情绪。

“The different stock markets’ performances reflect the distances between America and China in terms of national power, technology, humanity and sense of well-being,” a commenter wrote.

一名评论者写道:“股市的不同表现反映了中美两国在国力、科技、人文和幸福感方面的差距。”

The comments demonstrate a growing loss of confidence by the Chinese public in the stock market, the country’s economic prospects and the Chinese Communist Party’s ability to govern.

这些言论表明,中国民众对股市、国家经济前景和中国共产党的执政能力越来越失去信心

“Their reactions are more than about losing money in the markets,” said Jacky, an analyst in the manufacturing industry who is earning half of what he was making two years ago and is juggling several jobs. “The venting probably serves as an outlet for their accumulated frustrations in life.”

“他们这种反应不仅是因为在市场上亏了钱,”身为制造业分析师的杰基说,他现在的收入只有两年前的一半,而且还身兼数职。“这些发泄可能是对他们在生活中积累的不满的一种宣泄。”

00newworldAshares 01 jpvt master1050中国证券监督管理委员会的办公地点,其领导人已被免职,外界认为此举是为了增强投资者信心。

Another investor I spoke to, Leo, a portfolio manager at an asset management company in Beijing, has been investing in China’s stock markets for nearly a decade. In November, he started closing out his positions. Now, like Jacky, he is placing his bets on overseas markets.

与我交谈的另一位投资者里奥是北京一家资产管理公司的投资经理,他投资中国股市已有近十年时间。去年11月,他开始平仓。现在,他和杰基一样,把赌注押在了海外市场。

Leo said he used to hope that China’s internet giants Alibaba and Tencent would become $1 trillion companies like Amazon, and that investors like him would benefit from their growth. “That dream was shattered” after the government cracked down on tech in 2020, he said. “I can only look to the overseas markets now.”

里奥说,他曾经希望中国的互联网巨头阿里巴巴和腾讯能像亚马逊一样成为市值1万亿美元的公司,并希望像他这样的投资者能从这些公司的发展中获益。2020年中国政府打击科技行业后,“这个梦想破灭了,”他说。“我现在只能把目光投向海外市场。”

The American Embassy’s Weibo comments section once served as an online punching bag for nationalistic Chinese who blamed the United States for their country’s problems. Now it’s called the Western Wall of China’s A shares investors.

美国大使馆的微博评论区曾是中国民族主义者的网络出气筒,他们把自己国家的问题归咎于美国。现在,它被称为中国A股投资者的哭墙。

“Under the protection of the U.S. government,” wrote one commenter, “the giraffes are 10,000 times happier than the Chinese stock investors.”

一名评论者写道:“在美国政府的保护下,长颈鹿比中国股民幸福一万倍。”

In a tightly controlled society like China’s, it’s rare to see such a robust expression of public sentiment. The comments could also serve as a harbinger if the economy doesn’t recover soon. Despite being bombarded by propaganda and intimidated by the government, people may continue to question their government and find creative ways to express their discontent.

在中国这样一个受到严格控制的社会中,很少能看到如此强烈的公众情绪表达。如果经济不能快速复苏,这些评论也可能成为预兆。尽管受到宣传的轰炸和政府的恐吓,人们可能会继续质疑政府,并找到创新的方式来表达不满。

It’s always tough to gauge public sentiment in China. People dare not publicly say anything critical about their government. Now even critical comments about the economy are censored and punished. That’s why both Jacky and Leo asked me to use only their English names for fear of reprisal.

在中国,很难判断公众的情绪。人们不敢公开发表任何批评政府的言论。现在,即使是批评经济的言论也会受到审查和惩罚。这就是为什么杰基和里奥都让我用他们的英文名,因为害怕遭到报复。

Still, online outbursts by large groups of people can offer clues about public sentiment. Take, for example, the grief that followed the death of Li Wenliang, a doctor who blew the whistle in the early days of the pandemic. And the widespread mourning after the unexpected death last year of former Premier Li Keqiang, a reformist politician who accomplished little under the country’s leader, Xi Jinping.

尽管如此,大群人在网上的情绪爆发仍能提供有关公众情绪的线索。例如,在疫情初期揭露疫情的医生李文亮去世后,人们表达了悲痛。去年,前总理李克强意外逝世,也引发了普遍哀悼。李克强是一位改革派政治家,但在习近平的领导下却未能有所作为。

Those episodes showed the public’s disapproval of censorship and doubt about the direction that Mr. Xi is taking the country. The comments on the U.S. Embassy’s Weibo account belong in this category.

这些事件表明了公众对审查制度的不满,以及对习近平带领国家前进方向的怀疑。美国大使馆微博上的评论就属于这一类。

Valuable insights into what people are feeling occasionally emerge in unexpected places. A recent survey by the Canton Public Opinion Research Center offered a bleak picture from the southern city of Guangzhou, a metropolis of nearly 19 million people and a hub of technology, manufacturing and trade. In a 2023 survey of 1,000 residents, the center found that the city’s “economy and the society were confronted with unprecedented challenges and pressure.”

有时,对人们真实感受的洞察会在意想不到的地方浮出水面。广州社情民意研究中心近期的一项调查描绘了一幅暗淡的画面。广州是一座拥有近1900万人口的大都市,也是科技、制造和贸易中心。在2023年一项针对1000名居民的调查中,该中心发现广州的“经济和社会面临着前所未有的挑战和压力”。

The research center’s report said residents’ assessment of the economy, because of unemployment and falling incomes, was as low as it was in 2015, when China’s markets tanked. Satisfaction with the growth of the private sector dropped below 30 percent, the lowest level since the question was first asked in 2008. Most residents said they didn’t expect their incomes to improve in 2024, and more than 20 percent said they believed they were “likely” to lose their jobs.

该研究中心的报告称,由于失业以及收入减少,居民对经济的评价与在2015年中国股灾时一样低。对民营经济增长的满意度降至30%以下,这是自2008年首次提出这一问题以来的最低水平。大多数居民表示,他们预计自己的收入在2024年不会改善,超过20%的居民表示,他们认为自己“有可能”失去工作。

News coverage about the survey was censored, and the report can’t be found on the center’s website.

有关该调查的新闻报道受到了审查,在该中心的网站上也找不到这份报告了。

The survey results wouldn’t be surprising to investors.

对于投资者来说,这个调查结果并不令人意外。

Jacky, who is in his mid-30s, lost his job at a private equity firm in 2022. He had to take a deep pay cut when he moved back to manufacturing. He fears he is “on the verge of falling off a cliff.”

杰基今年30出头,在2022年失去了在一家私募股权公司的工作。当他重回制造业时,不得不接受大幅减薪。他担心自己“就要跌落悬崖”。

Leo, who was born in Beijing in the mid-1980s, said he had grown up as a nationalistic “little pink.” The first crack in his confidence, he said, was in 2021 when the government went after internet companies. The second crack appeared when the government abruptly ended its “zero-Covid” policy in December 2022 without preparing the population with effective vaccines or medications. Then in late July, the markets and the private sector failed to respond to government measures to stimulate the economy.

里奥于上世纪80年代中期出生在北京,他说自己小时候是个民族主义“小粉红”。他说,2021年,当政府打压互联网公司时,他的信心出现了第一道裂缝。第二道裂缝出现在2022年12月,政府突然结束了“清零”政策,却没有为民众准备有效的疫苗或药物。在随后的7月下旬,市场和民营部门未能对政府刺激经济的措施做出反应。

00newworldAshares 02 jpvt master1050阿里巴巴去年在北京举办的中国国际信息通信展览会上的展位。

Leo’s change is remarkable. He said local Beijing residents like him and the people with whom he had gone to high school were among the stoutest supporters of the Communist Party’s rule because they benefited from the city’s expansion and the country’s growth.

里奥的变化是显著的。他说,像他这样的北京本地居民,还有跟他一起上高中的那些同学都是共产党统治最坚定的支持者,因为他们都从这座城市的扩张和国家的发展中受益。

When a group of Leo’s classmates met up in June, he said, they couldn’t believe that two of them, a couple, were migrating to Canada. When they met again last month, he found that a few of his classmates had opened bank accounts in Hong Kong, which, unlike the mainland, has banks that are connected to the global financial system. They asked him how to convert their savings in renminbi to U.S. dollars and transfer them to Hong Kong.

他说,当他的一群同学在去年6月聚会时,他们难以置信其中一对夫妇将移民加拿大。上个月他们再次见面时,他发现有几个同学已经在香港开设了银行账户,不同于内地,香港的银行与全球金融体系相连。他们向他询问如何将人民币存款兑换成美元并转到香港。

“They’re preparing for the worst-case scenarios,” he said. “No one laughed at the two classmates who migrated to Canada any more. In fact, we’re jealous of them.”

“他们正在为最坏的情况做准备,”他说。“没有人再去嘲笑两位移民的同学。大家都在羡慕他们其实。”

I asked Leo what would have to change for him to invest again in the A shares market.

我问里奥,需要出现哪些改变,他才会再次投资A股市场。

He said the big problems that had made him flee remained unsolved: the imploding real estate sector, enormous local government debts and a fast-aging population.

他说,让他逃离A股的大问题仍未解决:房地产行业的内爆、地方政府债台高筑,以及人口的迅速老龄化

He said that he wanted the government to loosen its grip on private enterprise and disband Communist Party branches that had proliferated inside companies, and that he wanted the private sector to start to invest again. Until then, he will keep his money out of China’s markets.

他说,他希望政府放松对民营企业的控制,解散在企业内部大量组建的党支部,并希望民营部门重新开始投资。在此之前,他不会把资金投入中国市场。

And what investing advice would he give to his families and friends? “Run as fast as you can,” he said, “even at a loss.”

那么他对家人和朋友有什么投资建议?他说,"即使亏损,也要赶快离开。”


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DAVID PIERSON

2024年2月19日

刘建超领导着中共对外部门。许多人形容他相对没那么拘谨,也更有魅力。 Andy Wong/Associated Press

Faced with declining foreign investment at home, China has sought to soften its image in the United States and Europe and make nice with some of its neighbors. One Communist Party official has played an unusually prominent role in the shift in tone.

在境内外国投资不断减少的情况下,中国已经在寻求软化自己在美国和欧洲的形象,并改善与一些邻国的关系。在这个转变过程中,一名中国共产党官员发挥着不同寻常的重要作用。

In New York, he told an audience of scholars and businesspeople that China did not seek to rewrite the United States-led global order. In Paris, he said that China’s modernization would benefit Europe and the world. In Beijing, he told the ambassador of India, a regional rival, that China hoped relations would “return to a healthy and stable” track.

在纽约,他告诉台下的学者和商人,中国不寻求改写由美国领导的全球秩序。在巴黎,他说中国的现代化有益于欧洲和世界。在北京,他告诉印度这个敌对国家的驻华大使,中国希望两国关系“重回健康稳定发展轨道”。

The official, Liu Jianchao, heads the Communist Party’s diplomatic arm, a body that promotes the party’s ideology and influence abroad. His recent engagements suggest to analysts, however, that he has been auditioning for the role of China’s next foreign minister.

这位官员是刘建超,中共对外联络部的领导人,该部门主要在海外宣传该党意识形态和提升其影响力。然而,分析人士认为,他近期的活动表明,他正在竞争中国下一任外交部长的职位。

For Beijing, appointing a new foreign minister, potentially as soon as in March during a legislative meeting, would help steady the country’s diplomatic apparatus after a dramatic shake-up last year.

对北京来说,在去年中国外交机关经历重大人员变动后,任命一名新外交部长可能有助于稳定局面。该任命最早可能在3月的一场立法会议期间下达。

In July, the party abruptly ousted Qin Gang, then the foreign minister, amid speculation that he had been in a romantic relationship that potentially compromised national security. Mr. Qin’s predecessor, Wang Yi, was reappointed to the post; Mr. Wang is also the director of the party’s commission on foreign affairs, a position usually held by a different person than the foreign minister.

去年7月,中共突然将时任外交部长秦刚解职,外界猜测他存在一段可能危及国家安全的浪漫关系。秦刚的前任王毅受命再次出任该职。他同时兼任中央外事工作委员会办公室主任,这一职务通常与外交部长由不同的人担任。

秦刚去年7月突然下台。
秦刚去年7月突然下台。 Noel Celis/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Mr. Liu’s appointment would signal a departure from the abrasive “wolf warrior” diplomacy that has come to symbolize China’s assertive posture under China’s top leader, Xi Jinping, at least in tone, if not in substance.

任命刘建超可能意味着中共不再沿袭刺耳的“战狼”外交,也就是成为最高领导人习近平领导下中国强硬姿态象征的那种外交政策——至少在语调上是如此,如果不是有实际行动的话。

A fluent speaker of English who studied briefly at Oxford University, Mr. Liu has a knack for defending Beijing’s most ardent positions, like its claims to the self-governing island of Taiwan, without being acerbic. Mr. Liu is considered a trusted party loyalist, having burnished his reputation by helping lead a controversial campaign called Operation Fox Hunt to bring back corrupt businesspeople and officials from abroad.

曾在牛津大学短暂学习的刘建超讲一口流利的英语,善于在不使用尖刻语言的情况下捍卫北京最为坚持的立场,例如对自治岛屿台湾的主权主张。刘建超对党的忠诚得到了认可,曾领导具有争议的“猎狐行动”,在海外追捕逃亡的腐败商人和官员,并因此声名大噪。

Many who have met with Mr. Liu say he is more informal and engaging than other Chinese officials, seemingly comfortable going off script.

许多曾见过刘建超的人说与其他中国官员相比,他相对没那么拘谨,更有魅力,似乎较为愿意自由发挥。

“Liu is an experienced diplomat who brings the relaxed confidence of a senior party cadre to his dialogues, something that is missing from most Chinese foreign ministry officials who cautiously recite the party line,” said Danny Russel, a vice president of the Asia Society Policy Institute and a former U.S. assistant secretary of state who spoke with Mr. Liu at a meeting organized by the Asia Society, a research group, in New York.

“刘建超是名经验丰富的外交官,言谈中带着一种松弛的自信,这在小心翼翼重复党的立场的大多数中国外交部官员中是罕见的,”亚洲协会政策研究所副所长、前美国助理国务卿丹尼·拉塞尔说。他曾在研究机构亚洲协会于纽约举办的会议中与刘建超有过对话。

At another event in New York, Mr. Liu downplayed the severity of China’s economic slowdown, defended Beijing’s ties to Moscow and cast his country as a peaceful nation that had no interest in changing the current international order, nor in creating a new one.

在纽约的另一场活动中,刘建超淡化了中国经济放缓的严重程度,为北京与莫斯科的关系进行辩护,并且将他的国家树立为一个和平国家,对改变目前的国际秩序和打造新国际秩序均无兴趣。

“We are one of the builders of the current world order and have benefited from it,” he said at the talk, hosted by the Council on Foreign Relations.

“我们是目前世界秩序的打造者之一,也从中受益,”他在这场讲话上说

The remark understates China’s position, said Yun Sun, director of the China program at the Stimson Center in Washington. China supports only some aspects of the global order, such as its permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council, but it opposes other aspects it views as a challenge, such as the U.S.-led NATO.

华盛顿史汀生中心中国项目负责人孙韵称,这番话没有充分描述中国的立场。中国仅支持世界秩序的一些方面,比如该国在联合国安理会的常任理事国身份,但中国反对其他在其看来是挑战的方面,例如由美国领导的北约。

Still, Ms. Sun said, it was important that a senior Chinese official chose to highlight Beijing’s intentions about the global order because it “aims to bring down the tempo and the temperature” of its relationship with Washington.

但孙韵表示,一名中国高级官员选择强调了北京在全球秩序上的意图,因为它“旨在放慢”与华盛顿关系的“节奏,并给它降降温”,这本身是很重要的。

Mr. Liu rose through the ranks of the foreign ministry, first as a translator and then a spokesman, gaining prominence by working with the foreign media during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. After that, he served as ambassador to the Philippines and to Indonesia.

刘建超是在外交部内一路晋升上来的,一开始担任翻译员,后来担任发言人,通过2008年北京奥运会时与外国媒体打交道崭露头角。在那之后,他先后担任了驻菲律宾和印尼大使。

In 2015, Mr. Liu took on the job of hunting fugitives abroad as a vice minister for the feared Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the party’s secretive and powerful internal anti-corruption agency.

2015年,刘建超担任秘密的、掌握重权的内部反腐机构国家预防腐败局副局长,承担起了抓捕海外逃犯的工作。

In that role, Mr. Liu showed off his negotiation skills, recovering large sums of absconded money and netting high-profile fugitives such as Lai Changxing, a Chinese businessman and billionaire who fled to Canada to avoid charges that he ran a smuggling ring. Mr. Lai was convicted and now is serving a sentence of life imprisonment. Human rights groups have described the Fox Hunt campaign as a form of transnational repression.

在该职位上,刘建超展现出谈判技巧,追回大笔被转至国外的资金,让赖昌星这样知名的逃犯落网。中国商人、亿万富翁赖昌星此前为了躲避对其领导走私集团的控罪而逃至加拿大。赖昌星被判罪名成立,目前正在服无期徒刑。人权组织曾将“猎狐行动”描述为一种跨国镇压。

00china diplomat 03 cqwf master10502011年,亿万富翁商人赖昌星(中)自加拿大被遣返回中国面对指控。

Mr. Liu bolstered his party credentials again in 2017 when he was named the top anti-corruption official in the coastal province of Zhejiang, where Mr. Xi once served as party leader. He was appointed deputy director of the Office of the Central Foreign Affairs Commission, a high-level party office that was formed in 2018 as Mr. Xi has sought to give the party even more control over China’s international relations strategy.

2017年,刘建超再次加强了他在党内的威信,被任命为浙江省纪委书记,习近平曾在该省担任省委书记。他被任命为中央外事工作委员会办公室副主任,这个中共高级别部门于2018年成立,当时习近平在寻求让党对国际关系策略拥有更多控制权。

In Mr. Xi’s decade in power, he has pushed to expand the party’s grip over the country’s vast government bureaucracy and Chinese society. “East, west, south, north, and center, the party leads everything,” Mr. Xi said at a party conclave in 2017.

习近平在他掌权的十年里推动扩大了党对中国庞大政府官僚机构和中国社会的控制。“东西南北中,党是领导一切的,”习近平在2017年的一场产生中共领导层的大会上说道。

That shift was underscored again when Mr. Liu was named to his current position in 2022 as head of the International Liaison Department. Traditionally, the department was charged with maintaining close ties with Communist parties in other countries like North Korea and Vietnam. It left regular state-to-state diplomacy to the foreign ministry.

2022年刘建超就任现在的职位中央对外联络部部长时,这一转变再次被凸显了出来。以前,该部门主要负责保持与在其他国家(例如朝鲜和越南)的共产党保持密切联系,将国与国之间的外交留给外交部。

Mr. Liu has broken those norms by meeting with foreign ministers across the world — giving the party access to diplomatic back channels that are rarely publicized. While in the United States in January, Mr. Liu met with Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken, in a rare meeting between the serving head of the International Liaison Department and a secretary of state.

刘建超则打破了这一常规,与世界各地的外交部长会面——这让中共能接触到一些极少公开的幕后外交渠道。1月在美国时,刘建超与国务卿安东尼·J·布林肯会面,而中联部负责人与美国国务卿会面是很罕见的。

00china diplomat 04 cqwf master1050上个月,华盛顿,美国国务卿布林肯(前左)与刘建超(前右)。

China and the United States stabilized relations in November following a summit between Mr. Xi and President Biden outside San Francisco. But tensions could reignite over a number of disputes that remain unresolved — including the status of Taiwan and restrictions on technology exports to China.

去年11月,习近平与拜登在旧金山市郊举行峰会后,中国与美国关系稳定了下来。但两国关系可能围绕着一系列仍未得到解决的争端再次紧张,相关争端包括台湾的地位以及对中国的技术出口限制。

In Britain, Mr. Liu signaled China’s resolve to protect its interests firmly. At a panel in Britain last summer, Mr. Liu was asked about “wolf warrior” diplomacy. He responded in his typically amiable way, explaining that China wanted to make friends all over the world. But he cautioned, “When China is under pressure and China’s policies are under pressure, we do demonstrate a fighting spirit.”

在英国,刘建超就中国坚定保护本国利益的决心发出信号。去年夏天在英国的一场座谈会上,刘建超被问及关于“战狼”外交的问题。他以一贯的亲切口吻做出了回答,解释中国想在全世界交朋友。但他也告诫称,“当中国在压力之下,当中国的政策在压力之下时,我们确实会展现出一种斗争的精神。”


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JONATHAN LANDRETH

2024年2月9日

As the Year of the Dragon dawns, the Chinese artist Ai Weiwei has released “Zodiac,” a “graphic memoir” of scenes from his career — both real (hanging with Allen Ginsberg, the O.G. of Beat poets, in 1980s Greenwich Village) and imagined (debating Xi Jinping, China’s paramount leader). Each chapter frames the artist’s take on traditional beliefs about the characteristics humans share with the 12 animals of the Chinese lunar calendar. Gianluca Costantini’s intricate line drawings pair with Elettra Stamboulis’s comic-bubble text to help expand Ai’s lifelong campaign for free expression to a new medium for a new generation. Ai spoke with Jonathan Landreth about parents and parenting, punk rock and the passage of time, all via video chat last week from Berlin.

龙年来临之际,中国艺术家艾未未发表了《十二生肖》,这是一部“图文回忆录”,记录了他职业生涯中的真实场景(在上世纪八十年代的格林威治村,与垮掉派元老诗人艾伦·金斯堡廝混)和想象场景(与中国最高领导人习近平辩论)。每一章都体现了这位艺术家如何理解传统观念——人类与中国农历十二生肖的共同特征。吉安卢卡·科斯坦蒂尼的复杂线描与埃莱特拉·斯坦布利斯的漫画泡泡文字相得益彰,将艾未未毕生追求自由表达的运动扩展到了新的媒介,面向新的一代。上周,艾未未在柏林与乔纳森·兰德雷斯用视频对话,谈论了父母、养育子女、朋克摇滚,还有时间的流逝。

This conversation has been edited for length and clarity.

由于篇幅所限以及为了文字的清晰,对话经过了编辑。

A zodiac cycle ago, in 2012, you were just out of jail and tired of Beijing trying to silence you. “Twitter is my city,” you told me. Now you live in Berlin, Cambridge and Portugal. Where’s your city today?

一轮生肖之前,也就是2012年,你刚刚出狱,厌倦了北京试图让你保持沉默的做法。你对我说,“Twitter是我的城”。现在你住在柏林、剑桥和葡萄牙。今天,你的城在哪?

Twitter was my city because it was the only place for my expression at that time. Since 2015, when I left China, conditions have changed. I was under such pressure in China. Suddenly, I came to the so-called free world and Twitter was not so important. It was just one of the tools.

Twitter曾经是我的城,因为它是我当时唯一可以表达的地方。2015年我离开中国后,情况发生了变化。我在中国承受着巨大的压力。突然之间,我来到了所谓的自由世界,Twitter变得不那么重要了。它只是一个工具。

I consider nowhere home. Not China and not outside China. It’s strange. I just came back from New York. I consider none of these cities home. Home means you close your eyes and imagine the street and recognize a few names you grew up with. None of these places have this.

我觉得哪里都算不上家。不是中国,也不是中国以外的地方。这很奇怪。我刚从纽约回来。我认为这些城市都不是我的家。家意味着你闭上眼睛,可以想象街道的样子,认出几个和你一起长大的人。这些地方都没有这种感觉。

In “Zodiac,” you teach your son, Ai Lao, the legend of the Jade Emperor creating the calendar. What did you learn by explaining time?

在《十二生肖》里,你给你的儿子艾老讲玉皇大帝创造历法的传说。你从解释时间这件事里学到了什么?

Some say time is only an illusion. The illusion can be painful, or it can be happy. Some live in the past, and some struggle in the present. Someone may have no future. It’s hard to explain what time is about. The new generation needs some kind of reference when we talk about time. I can talk about the years I lived in Xinjiang, or the time my father was dying so I moved back to China from New York. You really need events to illustrate time. My son will turn 15 soon, so his time will be in China, then Germany, then England. That’s how he’ll understand it.

有人说,时间只是一种幻觉。幻觉可以是痛苦的,也可以是快乐的。有的人活在过去,有的人挣扎在现在。有的人可能没有未来。时间是什么,很难说清楚。当我们谈论时间,新一代人需要某种参照。我可以谈我在新疆生活的那些年,也可以谈我父亲去世后,我从纽约搬回中国的日子。你真的需要事件来解释时间。我的儿子马上就要满15岁了,所以他的时间会是先在中国,然后在德国,最后在英国。他会这样理解。

《十二生肖》的每一章都体现了艾未未如何诠释传统观念——人类与中国农历十二生肖的共同特征。 via Ten Speed Graphic

In a few “Zodiac” illustrations we see your son speaking with an image of your father, the poet Ai Qing, at his grave. Do you speak to him too?

在几幅《十二生肖》插图里,我们看到你的儿子在你的父亲、诗人艾青的墓前与他交谈。你也会这样和他说话吗?

It was an awkward situation. Ai Lao is a very independent boy. Perhaps it’s due to his experiences. He has his own perspective and independent way of thinking. Sometimes we tried not to let him voice his feelings, but he bowed to my father’s image, which we never do — head down to the ground. We never had that education and we never taught him to do that. How could a child do that? This surprised me. But it was natural, to show this kind of respect.

这是个有点尴尬的事。艾老是一个非常独立的男孩。也许与他的经历有关。他有自己的观点和独立的思考方式。有时我们试着不让他说出自己的感受,但他会向我父亲的照片磕头,头磕到地上,而我们从来没有这样做过。我们从未受过这样的教育,也没有教他这样做。一个孩子怎么会这样做呢?这让我很惊讶。但这是自然而然的,是为了表现出尊敬。

I don’t communicate with my father anymore. Not before he passed and not after. I regret I never asked him a solid question — what did he think about China or his time? I should have and it’s too late. Each generation bears the same situation. I wouldn’t want Ai Lao to ask me those questions. [But] his world will not be the same as mine. Probably my father never tried to pass his experience to me because he realized there was not much of a lesson to give to the next generation. That’s tragic. There’s a strong sense of loss that carries more value than any material life. It’s like being cut off from the most intimate relationship.

我不和父亲交流。他去世前没有,去世后也没有。我很遗憾我从来没有问过他一个有份量的问题——他对中国或他所处的时代有什么看法?我应该问的,但已经晚了。每一代人都承受着同样的处境。我不希望艾老问我这些问题。(但)他的世界不会和我的一样。可能我父亲从来没有试图把他的经验传授给我,因为他意识到没有什么教训可以教给下一代。这很悲哀。有一种强烈的失落感,比任何物质生活都更有价值。就像被切断了最亲密的关系。

07ai zodiac book4 lczm jumbo
艾未未的儿子艾老参观艾未未父亲艾青的骨灰堂。 via Ten Speed Graphic

Some of “Zodiac” looks drawn from photographs, and some seems to depict dreams. Describe the process and why you chose the graphic medium for the sequel to your 2021 prose memoir.

《十二生肖》中的一些内容看起来是根据照片绘制的,还有一些似乎描绘的是梦境。请描述一下创作过程,以及你为什么选择用图形媒介来创作您的2021年散文回忆录的续集。

Gianluca, the illustrator, and his wife, Elettra, and I sat together. The idea was to gather things from my memory, like a timeline, and offer mystical stories from China’s past. I explained it as a mix of memory and mythology. We thought this would relate not just my experience but general knowledge for whoever was interested. It’s a story with so much related to my situation that the publisher called it a memoir, but it’s not. Memory is subjective. We choose some things to remember and lots to forget.

我和插画家吉安卢卡还有他的妻子埃莱特拉坐在一起。我们的想法是,从我的记忆里收集东西,就像一个时间轴,并提供来自中国历史上的神秘故事。我把它解释为记忆和神话的混合。我们认为这不仅和我的经历有关,还能为感兴趣的人提供知识。这是一个和我的处境密切相关的故事,出版商把它叫做回忆录,其实不是。记忆是主观的。我们选择记住一些事情,同时忘记很多事情。

Most images in the book are related to photos because I post all my images on Instagram. They did the research. They asked questions and I answered. I never wrote a sentence but I did edit. All the dialogue in the book is based on my interviews.

书里大部分图片都和照片有关,因为我把所有照片都发到Instagram上。他们做了研究。他们提问,我回答。我没有写过一个句子,但我做了编辑工作。书里所有对话都是基于我的采访。

So it’s a collection of things you’ve said?

所以,这是把你说过的话集合起来?

Yes. It’s almost like an A.I. work.

是的。几乎就像一个人工智能作品。

Each animal represents a different characteristic. The mouse is a trickster and the ox is loyal. Does birth year determine personality and compatibility?

每种动物代表不同的特征。老鼠老奸巨猾,牛忠诚。出生年份能决定性格和相处吗?

When we were growing up as communists we didn’t have these superstitions. Gradually I realized through my zodiac artwork the profound meaning of this mythology to help understand individuals and society. It’s very different from the West, where you turn to the stars for meaning. Chinese relate to the animals around them. Only one of them is mystical, the dragon. This year, the Year of the Dragon, is supposed to be the most uneasy, uncertain, or dramatic year, which might be true. Us Chinese, we all believe in these animals, which, strangely enough, have often turned out to be more reliable about personal character, about who to associate with. It’s friendly knowledge, but the ones who believe in it really believe.

我们从小受共产主义教育,不讲这些迷信。渐渐地,通过我的生肖艺术作品,我意识到这个神话对于理解个人和社会的深刻意义。这和西方非常不一样,西方人向星星寻求意义。中国人和他们周围的动物息息相关。其中只有一种动物是神秘的,那就是龙。今年是龙年,被认为是最不安、最不确定或者最戏剧性的一年,这可能是真的。我们中国人都相信这些动物,奇怪的是,事实证明,这些动物在判断人的性格、判断和谁交往这些方面,往往更可靠。这是一种友好的知识,但是相信它的人真的很相信。

07ai zodiac book2 mlwg jumbo
在恶魔岛上展出的纸扎的龙风筝,这是装置作品《随风》(2014年)。 via Ten Speed Graphic
07ai zodiac book3 wjfq jumbo
艾未未与一个男子想象中的对话,艾未未说,这个男人“看起来很面熟”。 via Ten Speed Graphic

You’re a rooster who left China, which now is led by Xi Jinping, a snake — a rooster’s natural friend on the compatibility chart.

你属鸡,你离开了中国,现在中国由习近平领导,而习近平属蛇——按照属相表,蛇和鸡应该是天然的朋友。

We’re supposed to be friends but we’ve had no chance to meet yet. There are 100 million roosters and 100 million snakes in China.

我们应该是朋友,但我们还没有机会见面。中国有一亿人属鸡,一亿人属蛇。

Am I mistaken, or is there in “Zodiac” an imagining of you debating the snake?

我没记错的话,《十二生肖》里有你和那条蛇辩论的想象画面?

It’s a drawing by Gianluca. I think that face looks familiar to me. He is such a good illustrator. He can use simple lines to really capture the character.

是吉安卢卡画的。我觉得那张面孔很眼熟。他是一个出色的插图画家。他可以用简单的线条来捕捉人物。

If you met the snake, what would you say?

如果你遇到那条蛇,你会说什么?

“Be a nice snake.” In Chinese, every animal is not good or bad. They all can be nice.

“做一条好的蛇。”在汉语中,每种动物都没有好坏之分。它们都可以是好的。

As an example of a tiger, you name the Nobel Peace laureate Liu Xiaobo, who died in 2017 after his release from prison. Who are today’s courageous tigers?

作为属虎的例子,你提到了诺贝尔和平奖得主刘晓波,他在2017年出狱后去世。谁是当今勇敢的老虎呢?

Internationally, the U.S. is still the tiger, but it’s a pretty old tiger. We have a Chinese idiom, “Even a dead tiger still has power”— because it has that look, that skin. The U.S. is still alive, still dominates and affects the global situation. In China, the Communist Party is the tiger. The Party has existed for 103 years and reached almost 100 million people. No other party can be this big for this long and still function very well, even with tremendous internal problems. It’s a system which is not just a political structure but has inherited a fatalistic society from the Qin Dynasty 2,000 years ago. Now, under the so-called opening up, they have survived and are catching up in every aspect with a kind of state capitalism. They don’t have the disadvantages of classic capitalism. They have a longer strategy, a bigger plan. They can play the game differently.

在国际上,美国仍然是那只老虎,但它是一只相当老的老虎。我们有一个中国俗语,“虎死不倒威”——因为它余威仍在,还有那张皮。美国仍然存在,仍然主导和影响着全球局势。在中国,共产党是老虎。中国共产党已经存在了103年,有近一亿党员。没有任何一个政党能够以这么大的规模,维持这么长的时间,并且在存在巨大内部问题的情况下仍然运转良好。这种制度不仅是一种政治结构,而且继承了2000年前秦朝的天命社会。现在,在所谓的对外开放之下,他们生存下来,并且在各个方面都在用一种国家资本主义的方式追上来。他们没有传统资本主义的弊端。他们有更长远的战略,更宏大的计划。他们可以用不一样的方式来玩游戏。

But who are the individual tigers with courage to speak out like Liu Xiaobo?

但是,作为个人,像刘晓波这样有勇气发声的老虎是谁呢?

There’s no such person in China. Cats and tigers look the same, but China doesn’t even have cats.

在中国没有这样的人。猫和老虎样子很像,但在中国连猫都没有。

The rabbit represents immortality and art. With the time you have left will you, like the German artist Joseph Beuys, who is featured in “Zodiac,” plant trees that thrive outdoors in open, public spaces, for all to see, or will you continue to show indoors, at museums that charge admission and are subject to political pressures?

兔子代表不朽和艺术。在你剩下来的时间里,你会像在《十二生肖》里出现的德国艺术家约瑟夫·博伊斯那样,在户外的开放公共空间里种植茂盛的树木,让所有人都能看到,还是继续在那些要收门票,还要承受政治压力的室内博物馆里展出呢?

For artists today, there are so many possibilities to not repeat this old game, which has lost interest and doesn’t connect with our human experience any more. I used galleries, museums and art fairs only because I saw them as ready-made. They’re just platforms, but absolutely not necessary.

对于今天的艺术家来说,有很多可能性不再重复这样的老游戏,它已经不再有趣味,不再与我们的人类经验相联系。我使用画廊、博物馆和艺术博览会,只是因为我认为它们是现成的。它们只是平台,但绝对不是必需的。

After you posted a polarizing comment about the Israel-Hamas war, London’s Lisson Gallery delayed a show of your new art. (The tweet was deleted). When will the show open?

在你发表了一篇关于以色列和哈马斯战争的极化评论后,伦敦的里森画廊推迟了你的新艺术展。(该推文已被删除)。这个展览什么时候开始?

I have absolutely no sense. Show or no show, it doesn’t make any difference to me.

我完全不知道。展览或不展览,对我来说都无所谓。

07ai zodiac book6 tqck jumbo
“我的艺术其实并不表达对世界的不耐烦,”艾未未说。“实际上,世界是冷漠的,所以我的急切并没有什么意义。” Maria Sturm for The New York Times

You’ve long stuck your finger in the eye of authority and you remain committed to free speech. You arrived in New York in 1981 just before the British punk band the Clash stormed American radio with the song “Should I Stay or Should I Go?” That question appears in your chapter on the dragon, a symbol of individual freedom. Was that conscious?

长期以来,你一直在指责权威,始终坚持言论自由。你在1981年来到纽约,当时英国朋克乐队“冲撞”(Clash)的《我该留下还是该离开》(Should I Stay or Should I Go?)这首歌正在美国电台风靡一时。这个问题也出现在你关于龙的章节中,而龙又是个人自由的象征。这是刻意的吗?

It was a conscious choice by Elettra, who employed a lot of word play and verbal information.

这是埃莱特拉刻意选的,她运用了大量的文字游戏和语言信息。

How punk rock did you feel when you left China in 2015?

2015年离开中国的时候,你觉得自己很朋克吗?

I was a punk rock singer without a voice. I love that medium but I am the furthest I can be from being a musician.

我是一个不唱歌的朋克摇滚歌手。我喜欢这种媒介,但我远谈不上是音乐人。

Your art seems to express impatience with the world. Which artists in China share your impatience?

你的艺术似乎表达了对这个世界的不耐烦。哪些中国艺术家和你一样?

My art doesn’t actually express impatience with the world. In reality, the world is indifferent, so my impatience doesn’t hold much significance. Yet, there are frustrating moments in life, akin to a poorly written sentence that could be improved. My art is related to so-called contemporary practice, philosophy, or ethics. In China, almost nobody has experience with this kind of modernism or contemporary culture. They have good, meaningful, and skillful art, but it cannot be clearly discussed or interpreted. They are lost. The conversation is lost. It’s not good or bad. It’s just like the U.S.-China conversation, politically: also lost. They’re not talking on the same page.

我的艺术实际上并没有表达对世界的不耐烦。在现实中,世界是冷漠的,所以我的急切没有多大意义。然而,生活中也有令人沮丧的时刻,就像一个写得不好的句子,可以加以改进。我的艺术与所谓的当代实践、哲学或伦理有关。在中国,几乎没有人经历过这种现代主义或当代文化。他们有好的、有意义的、有技巧的艺术,但无法清晰地加以讨论或解释。他们迷失了。对话失去了意义。没有好坏之分。这就像中美之间的对话一样,在政治上也失败了。他们不是在同一个层面交流。


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KEITH BRADSHER

2024年2月9日

合肥的蔚来汽车装配线。 Qilai Shen for The New York Times

Consumer prices fell last month in China by the most since the global financial crisis in 2009, the latest sign that weak spending and a glut of output from factories and farms are forcing businesses to offer discounts.

中国上个月的居民消费价格创下2009年全球金融危机以来的最大降幅,这是消费疲软以及工厂和农场产出过剩,迫使企业提供折扣的最新迹象。

The decline in consumer prices was mostly confined to food and electric cars. But wholesale prices charged by factories and other producers also fell last month, and have been down from their levels a year earlier in every month since October 2022.

居民消费价格的下降主要体现在食品和电动汽车。但工厂和其他生产商的批发价格在上个月也有所下降,而且自2022年10月以来,每月的批发价格都低于上年同期水平。

A broad decline in the overall level of prices, a phenomenon known as deflation, could be very troublesome for the economy. Falling prices make it hard for households and companies to keep up on monthly payments for mortgages, corporate loans and other debts.

居民消费价格总体水平的普遍下降,即所谓的通货紧缩现象,会给经济造成很大的麻烦。物价下跌会使家庭和企业难以每月支付抵押贷款、企业贷款和其他债务。

“The deflation data add to a raft of other economic indicators that, on top of a struggling stock market and unraveling property market, pose an extraordinary challenge to the command and control approach of the Chinese government,” said Eswar Prasad, a professor of trade and economics at Cornell University.

“通货紧缩数据是对一系列其他经济指标的补充,再加上挣扎中的股市和崩塌的房地产市场,这都对中国政府的指挥和控制方式构成了非同寻常的挑战,”康奈尔大学贸易与经济学教授埃斯瓦尔·普拉萨德说。

China’s stock markets have fallen sharply this year, although they have trimmed their losses this week. China said on Wednesday that the official most directly responsible for oversight of the stock markets, Yi Huiman, had been replaced as leader of the China Securities Regulatory Commission. Mr. Yi, 59, was replaced by Wu Qing, a longtime regulator.

今年以来,中国股市大幅下跌,不过本周跌幅有所收窄。中国政府周三表示,最直接负责监管股市的官员易会满已被撤换,不再担任中国证券监督管理委员会的领导职务。59岁的易会满被长期担任监管者的吴清取代。

The decline in prices does have one silver lining for China: It makes Chinese goods even more competitive in overseas markets. As many Chinese families have become increasingly wary of spending, manufacturers of everything from electric cars to solar panels are ramping up their exports to distant markets.

不过居民消费价格的下降也给中国带来了一线希望:它使中国商品在海外市场更具竞争力。由于许多中国家庭对消费变得越来越谨慎,从电动车到太阳能电池板等各种产品的制造商都在加大对远方市场的出口。

Consumer prices dropped 0.8 percent in January from a year earlier, a much larger drop than expected. That decline was driven by falling food prices, including a plunge of 17.3 percent in the price of pork.

1月居民消费价格环比下降0.8%,降幅远大于预期。这主要是受食品价格下跌的影响,其中猪肉价格下降17.3%。

The price of pork can be volatile, especially around Lunar New Year when family celebrations tend to push up demand. In 2023 the holiday fell in late January, likely pushing pork prices higher for the month. This year it’s nearly three weeks later, meaning prices could jump in February.

猪肉价格可能会出现波动,尤其是在农历新年前后,因为过年往往会推高需求。2023年的农历新年在1月下旬,可能推高了当月的猪肉价格。今年春节晚了将近三周,这意味着2月的价格可能会跳涨。

Excluding food, consumer prices were up 0.4 percent. Falling prices for electric cars were offset by slowly rising prices for clothing, health care and tourism.

除食品外,居民消费价格上涨了0.4%。电动车价格的下降被服装、医疗保健和旅游价格的缓慢上涨所抵消。

MICHAEL D. SHEAR

2024年2月9日

关于在拜登的办公室和特拉华州的住所发现机密文件一事,拜登的律师一年多来一直陈述理由称属于偶然疏忽。 Kent Nishimura for The New York Times

The decision on Thursday not to file criminal charges against President Biden for mishandling classified documents should have been an unequivocal legal exoneration.

周四,针对拜登总统不当处理机密文件一事,对其不予提起刑事诉讼的决定本应是明确的法律免责。

Instead, it was a political nightmare.

但它却成为了一场政治噩梦。

The investigation into Mr. Biden’s handling of the documents after being vice president called him a “well-meaning, elderly man with a poor memory” and described interviews in which he could not recall when he served as vice president, what year his son died or whom he agreed with during policy debates.

针对拜登成为副总统后不当处理机密文件的调查将其称为“善意、记忆力差的老人”,并且描述了他在接受问询时的场面,拜登在其中无法记起自己何时担任副总统、其子去世年份,或在政策辩论中他赞同哪一方。

The memory of the then-80-year-old president was so hazy during five hours of interviews with the F.B.I. investigators over two days, according to the report by Robert K. Hur, the special counsel, that it would be difficult to convince jurors that Mr. Biden knew his handling of the documents was wrong. Mr. Hur predicted in the report that if the president were charged, his lawyers “would emphasize these limitations in his recall.”

据特别检察官罗伯特·许的报告显示,FBI在两天进行的5个小时的问询中,当时80岁的现任总统记忆如此模糊,很难说服陪审员相信拜登当时明知自己不当处理了文件。罗伯特·许在报告中预测,如果总统受到指控,他的律师“将强调他在回忆事件方面的限制。”

In part because of Mr. Biden’s memory, Mr. Hur declined to recommend charging the president for what the report described as willful retention of national security secrets, including some documents shared by the president that implicated “sensitive intelligence sources and methods.”

针对报告所说有意留存国家安全机密,包括一些总统分享的、带有“敏感情报来源和获取方式”的文件,罗伯特·许拒绝建议对这位总统提起控罪,部分原因是拜登的记忆力。

“It would be difficult to convince a jury that they should convict him — by then a former president well into his 80s — of a serious felony that requires a mental state of willfulness,” Mr. Hur wrote.

“要说服陪审员,让他们判定一个到时候已经是80多岁的前总统犯下了一系列重罪很难,这些重罪需要一个有意愿的精神状态才能成立,”罗伯特·许写道。

In his own statement, Mr. Biden appeared to suggest a reason for why he was distracted.

在拜登的声明中,他似乎暗示了自己注意力不集中的原因。

“I was so determined to give the special counsel what they needed that I went forward with five hours of in-person interviews over two days on Oct. 8 and 9 of last year, even though Israel had just been attacked on Oct. 7 and I was in the middle of handling an international crisis,” he wrote. “I just believed that’s what I owed the American people.”

“我当时决心要给特别检察官他们所需的,因此在去年10月8日和9日,尽管当时以色列刚刚于10月7日遭到袭击,我忙于处理一场国际危机的时候,我仍然在这两天里接受了五个小时的问询,”他写道。“我认为这是我应该为美国人民做的。”

The president’s lawyers, Bob Bauer and Richard Sauber, took exception in a Feb. 5 letter with Mr. Hur’s description of the president’s memory.

针对罗伯特·许对拜登总统记忆力的描述,总统的律师鲍勃·鲍尔和理查德·索伯在2月5日的一封信里表达了不同意见。

“It is hardly fair to concede that the president would be asked about events years in the past, press him to give his ‘best’ recollections and then fault him for his limited memory,” the lawyers wrote. “The president’s inability to recall dates or details of events that happened years ago is neither surprising nor unusual.”

“总统会被问到多年前发生的事、迫使他给出自己‘最佳’回忆,然后怪罪于他受限的记忆力,这有欠公平,”律师们写道。“总统未能回忆起日期或多年前发生事件的细节既不令人惊讶,也并非不寻常。”

Concerns about Mr. Biden’s age have been a recurring theme of his presidency over the past three years. Fueled in part by video of the president appearing weak or stumbling in public, many voters have expressed concern about his mental and physical fitness as he seeks to remain in the White House until he is 86 years old.

在过去三年里,关于拜登年纪的担忧一直是他总统任期中不断出现的主题。在拜登寻求在白宫留任至86岁,一些选民已经表达过对他精神和身体健康的担忧,这在一定程度上是由总统在公开场合看起来身体虚弱或步履蹒跚的视频所推动的。

During fund-raisers on Wednesday, Mr. Biden twice recalled a 2021 conversation with Helmut Kohl, the onetime German chancellor, who died in 2017. His spokeswoman later said he misspoke, as many public officials do.

在周三的资金筹集活动上,拜登两次回忆道2021年与曾担任过一任德国总理的赫尔穆特·科尔的对话,而后者已于2017年去世。拜登的发言人随后表示他这是口误,就像许多公职人员一样。

Mr. Biden has tried to laugh off the issue, insisting that with age comes wisdom. And his aides have repeatedly insisted that despite how the president sometimes comes across in public, he remains sharp and tireless when he is in private, in discussions with aides or in meetings with foreign leaders.

拜登试图对这个问题一笑置之,坚称智慧随着年纪增长。他的顾问也多次坚称,不论这位总统有时的公开形象看起来如何,但他私下在与顾问讨论问题或与外国领导人的会面中仍然十分敏锐,不知疲倦。

But the report released on Thursday challenges those descriptions, not by relying on short snippets of Mr. Biden posted to social media but rather on hourslong interactions with the president in controlled settings. And the descriptions of his memory were more vivid than what is normally found in legal documents like the one released on Thursday.

但周四公布的报告挑战了上述说法,这不是通过拜登在社交媒体上发布的寥寥几句,而是在受控环境下与这位总统数小时的互动。此外,对其记忆力的描述也比通常会在法律文件中看到的要生动地多(就像周四公布的这份一样)。

Mr. Biden’s political rivals, including former President Donald J. Trump, who has had his own string of unforced gaffes, are certain to seize on the detailed conclusions in the report as evidence that he is too frail to lead the country for another five years.

包括前总统特朗普(他也曾有过一系列自发的失态行为)在内,拜登的政敌肯定会抓住这份报告中细节详尽的结论,将其作为拜登身体过于虚弱无法再次领导这个国家五年的证据。

In the report, Mr. Hur wrote that in a 2017 recorded conversation between Mr. Biden and the ghostwriter for his book, Mr. Biden struggled to “remember events” and was “straining at times to read and relay his own notebook entries.” Mr. Hur said that the interviews in 2023 with investigators were even worse.

罗伯特·许在报告中写道,在2017年拜登与他回忆录的代笔人之间的一段对话录音中,拜登“回忆事件”时感到吃力,“有时艰难地阅读和转述自己的笔记本条目”。罗伯特·许说,拜登2023年与调查人员的面谈情况更糟。

08dc biden 03 gtqv master1050前马里兰州检察官罗伯特·许被任命为调查拜登不当处理机密文件一案的特别检察官。

“He did not remember when he was vice president, forgetting on the first day of the interview when his term ended (‘if it was 2013 — when did I stop being vice president?’), and forgetting on the second day of the interview when his term began (‘in 2009, am I still vice president?’),” the report said. “He did not remember, even within several years, when his son Beau died.”

“他不记得自己是什么时候担任副总统的,在采访的第一天就忘记了自己的任期是什么时候结束的(‘如果是2013年——我是什么时候不再担任副总统的?’),在采访后的第二天又忘记了自己的任期是什么时候开始的(‘2009 年,我还是副总统吗?’)报告写道。“他甚至没过几年,就记不清他的儿子博·拜登是什么时候去世的。”

Mr. Hur was nominated by Mr. Trump to be the U.S. attorney in Maryland, but was later chosen by Attorney General Merrick Garland to lead the investigation into Mr. Biden’s handling of classified documents.

罗伯特·许曾被特朗普提名为美国马里兰州检察官,但后来被司法部长梅里克·加兰选中,领导对拜登处理机密文件一案的调查。

Mr. Biden’s lawyers have been arguing for more than a year that the discovery of classified documents at Mr. Biden’s offices and Delaware home was no more than accidental oversight, and certainly not criminal behavior like the 37 felony charges brought against Mr. Trump for his handling of classified material after leaving office.

拜登的律师一年多来一直辩称,在拜登的办公室和特拉华州的家中发现机密文件不过是意外疏忽,肯定不是像特朗普因卸任后对机密材料的处理而被控37项重罪那样的犯罪行为。

On Thursday, the special counsel came to the same conclusion after reviewing a total of seven million documents, a fact celebrated inside the White House and at the president’s re-election campaign headquarters, where aides are preparing to wage a fierce battle to prevent Mr. Trump’s return to the White House.

周四,特别检察官在审查了总计700万份文件后得出了同样的结论,白宫内部和总统竞选连任总部都在庆祝这个结果,总统的助手们正准备展开一场激烈的战斗,阻止特朗普重返白宫。

08dc biden 02 gtqv master1050司法部公布的一张照片显示了罗伯特·许报告中的一张照片。

But the report refuted the longstanding argument by the president’s lawyers that Mr. Biden never put the nation’s national security at risk. Investigators found documents at Mr. Biden’s home in a “box in the garage, near a collapsed dog crate, a dog bed, a Zappos box, an empty bucket, a broken lamp wrapped with duct tape, potting soil and synthetic firewood.”

但报告驳斥了总统律师长期以来的论点,即拜登从未危及国家安全。调查人员在拜登家中的一个“车库里的箱子、一个倒塌的狗箱、一张狗床、一个Zappos盒子、一个空桶、一盏缠着胶带的破灯、盆栽土和合成木柴”附近都找到了文件。

While concluding that “the evidence does not establish Mr. Biden’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt,” Mr. Hur nonetheless wrote that Mr. Biden took classified documents and notebooks about Afghanistan with him in 2016 after leaving the vice presidency, and shared some of those documents with his ghostwriter.

虽然罗伯特·许得出结论,认为“证据并不能毫无疑问地证明拜登有罪”,但他还是写道,拜登在2016年卸任副总统职位后带走了有关阿富汗的机密文件和笔记本,并给他的代笔人看了其中的一些文件。

The tough language by Mr. Hur could set the stage for Mr. Trump and his allies to launch a fresh round of political attacks on Mr. Biden for doing the very same kinds of things Mr. Trump is accused of doing. And it will probably complicate the monthslong effort by Mr. Biden and his advisers to draw sharp distinctions between the actions of the two presidents.

罗伯特·许的强硬措辞可能会为特朗普及其盟友对拜登发起新一轮政治攻击创造条件,因为拜登的所作所为与特朗普被指责的行为如出一辙。拜登及其顾问长达数月的努力也可能因此而变得复杂,他们极力指出两位总统的行为之间存在差异。

But the most searing political damage is likely to be about Mr. Biden’s age, which many veteran Democrats already believe is the president’s biggest weakness. Some have privately said they worried that something would come along to remind voters about the age issue, including the possibility of a fall or a mental stumble.

但最严重的政治伤害可能还是与拜登的年龄问题有关,许多资深民主党人已经认为这是总统最大的弱点。一些人私下表示,他们担心会出现什么事让选民注意到年龄问题,包括摔倒或精神状态出状况的可能性。

Republicans began using the report to attack Mr. Biden almost immediately, sometimes going much further than the prosecutor’s actual conclusions.

共和党人几乎立即开始利用这份报告攻击拜登,有时甚至比检察官的实际结论更进一步。

Senator Marco Rubio, Republican of Florida, said on social media, falsely, that “the special counsel decided not to bring charges against Biden because they believe he has age related dementia.”

佛罗里达州共和党参议员马可·卢比奥在社交媒体上错误地宣称,“特别检察官决定不对拜登提出指控,因为他们认为他患有老年痴呆症。”

In some ways, Thursday’s report was the worst of all worlds: an official description of Mr. Biden behind the scenes, suggesting that with age come stumbles.

从某种程度上说,周四的报告是最糟糕的结果:官方对拜登幕后状况的描述表明,随着衰老,他的确会磕磕绊绊。

ANA SWANSON, ERIN GRIFFITH

2024年2月9日

中国一家芯片制造厂的工人。美国众议院的一份报告称,在政府去年8月禁止投资之前,美国的风险投资公司已向中国半导体行业投了逾10亿美元的资金。 China Daily/via Reuters

A congressional investigation has determined that five American venture capital firms invested more than $1 billion in China’s semiconductor industry since 2001, fueling the growth of a sector that the United States government now regards as a national security threat.

国会一项调查确认,自2001年以来,五家美国风险投资公司为中国的半导体行业总共投入逾10亿美元的资金,推动了这个如今被美国政府视为国家安全威胁的中国行业的发展。

Funds supplied by the five firms — GGV Capital, GSR Ventures, Qualcomm Ventures, Sequoia Capital and Walden International — went to more than 150 Chinese companies, according to the report, which was released Thursday by both Republicans and Democrats on the House Select Committee on the Chinese Communist Party.

这份由众议院美中战略竞争特别委员会的两党成员周四发布的报告显示,这五家公司——纪源资本、金沙江创业投资基金、高通风险投资、红杉资本和华登国际——为150多家中国公司提供了资金。

The investments included roughly $180 million that went to Chinese firms that the committee said directly or indirectly support Beijing’s military. That includes companies that the U.S. government has said provide chips for China’s military research, equipment and weapons, such as Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation, or SMIC, China’s largest chipmaker.

这些投资中约有1.8亿美元流向委员会所称的直接或间接支持北京军方的中国公司。其中包括美国政府所称为中国军事研究、设备和武器研制提供芯片的公司,例如中国最大的芯片制造商中芯国际。

The report by the House committee focuses on investments made before the Biden administration imposed sweeping restrictions aimed at cutting off China’s access to American financing. It does not allege any illegality.

这份众议院委员会的报告主要针对拜登政府为切断中国获得美国融资渠道而实施全面限制之前的投资。报告没有指控任何公司有非法行为。

Last August, the Biden administration banned U.S. venture capital and private equity firms from investing in Chinese quantum computing, artificial intelligence and advanced semiconductors. It has also imposed worldwide limits on sales of advanced chips and chip-making machines to China, arguing that these technologies could help advance the capabilities of the Chinese military and spy agencies.

去年8月,拜登政府禁止了美国风险投资和私募股权公司投资中国的量子计算、人工智能和先进半导体。拜登政府也已对向中国出售先进芯片和芯片制造设备施加了全球范围的限制,认为这些技术能帮助提高中国军事和间谍机构的能力。

Since it was established a year ago, the committee has called for raising tariffs on China, targeted Ford Motor and others for doing business with Chinese companies, and spotlighted forced labor concerns involving Chinese shopping sites.

自从一年前成立以来,该委员会一直呼吁对中国提高关税将福特汽车和其他与中国公司一起开展业务的美国企业作为调查对象,并特别关注涉及中国购物网站的强迫劳动问题

The report recommended that Congress curb investments in all Chinese entities that are subject to certain U.S. trade restrictions or included on federal “red flag” lists, as well as their parent companies and subsidiaries. That would include companies that partner with the Chinese military or have ties to forced labor in China’s Xinjiang region. The U.S. government should also consider imposing controls on other industries, like biotechnology and fintech, the lawmakers said.

报告建议,国会限制为所有受到美国某些贸易限制,或被列入联邦政府“红旗名单”的中国实体及其母公司和子公司的投资。这将包括与中国军方合作,或与中国新疆地区的强迫劳动有关的公司。这些立法者表示,美国政府也应该考虑对生物技术和金融科技等其他行业施行控制。

Sequoia said last June, before the committee had announced its investigation into private funding, that it would separate its China arm from its U.S. operations and rename it HongShan. A few months later, GGV Capital said it would separate its Asia-focused business.

去年6月,在该委员会宣布将对私人投资进行调查之前,红杉资本表示将把其中国业务与美国业务完全分开,独立运营的公司将使用红杉中国这一名称。几个月后,纪源资本宣布将其亚洲业务剥离出去独立运营。

Walden did not respond to a request for comment. A representative from GSR declined to comment. GGV provided a list of corrections and clarifications to the report and stated it has been in compliance with all applicable laws. GGV is also trying to sell its stakes in three companies discussed in the report.

华登没有回复置评请求。金沙江创投的代表拒绝置评。纪源资本对委员会的报告提供了一份更正和澄清清单,并表示公司一直遵守所有适用法律。纪源资本也正在试图出售其对报告中提到的三家公司所持的股份。

A Sequoia spokeswoman said the firm takes U.S. national security issues seriously and has always had processes in place to ensure compliance with U.S. law. The firm finalized its split from HongShan on Dec. 31.

红杉发言人表示,公司严肃对待美国的国家安全问题,并始终一直有相应的程序来确保遵守美国法律。红杉已在去年12月31日完成了与红杉中国的分拆。

A Qualcomm spokeswoman said its investments were small compared to the venture capital firms and made up less than 2 percent of the investments discussed in the report.

高通风投的发言人表示,与风险投资公司相比,该公司的投资规模很小,在特设委员会报告中讨论的投资额中只占不到2%。

Officials in Washington increasingly see business ties even with private Chinese technology companies as problematic, arguing that China has tried to draw on the expertise of the private sector to modernize its military.

美国政府官员们越来越多地认为,即使是与民营的中国技术企业的商业关系也存在问题,他们认为中国试图利用民营部门的专业知识来实现军队现代化

Committee leaders conceded that many of these investments were made when the United States was encouraging greater economic engagement with China.

该委员会的领导人承认,报告中提到的许多投资是在美国鼓励与中国加强经济接触的时期进行的。

“We all made this bet 20 years ago on China’s integration into the global economy, and it was logical,” said Representative Mike Gallagher of Wisconsin, the committee’s chairman. “It just happened to have failed.” He added, “Now, I just I think there’s no excuse anymore.”

“20年前,我们都曾押注中国融入全球经济的好处,那是合乎逻辑的,”威斯康星州众议员、特设委员会主席迈克·加拉格尔说。“只不过后来我们赌输了。”他补充说,“现在,我只是觉得没有任何借口了。”

The 57-page report draws on information provided to the committee by the firms about their investments, as well as interviews with senior executives at multiple firms.

这份57页长的报告使用了这些公司向委员会提供的有关其投资的信息,以及对多家公司高管的走访。

The committee’s report looked at just some of the funding flowing to China. Between 2016 and July 2023, Chinese semiconductor companies raised $8.7 billion in deals that included U.S. investment firms, according to PitchBook, which tracks start-up funding. That investment peaked in 2021.

该委员会的报告只关注了流向中国资金中的一部分。据追踪初创企业融资的PitchBook,在自2016年到2023年7月的这段时间里,中国的半导体公司在包括美国投资公司在内的企业交易中总共筹集了87亿美元。这类投资在2021年达到了峰值。

Venture capital firms pursued aggressive global expansion, particularly into Asia, for several decades. But they have known since the Trump administration took a more aggressive stance toward China that investments in Chinese companies would be subject to increasing scrutiny.

几十年来,风险投资公司一直积极向全球,尤其是亚洲扩张业务。但自从特朗普政府对中国采取了更强硬的立场以来,它们已知道对中国企业投资将受到越来越严的审查。

“No one is touching China now,” said Linus Liang, an investor at the venture firm Kyber Knight Capital.

“现在没人碰中国,”风险投资公司骑士资本的投资人莱纳斯·梁(音)说。

Splitting off investment entities with ties to China, as Sequoia and GGV did, may not resolve the committee’s concerns about American financing and technology ending up in Chinese companies, the report stated. Sequoia’s newly separated China-based firm, HongShan, counts U.S. investors among its backers. And HongShan and GGV’s new unit, GGV Asia, could still invest in U.S. start-ups, the report said.

委员会的报告称,像红杉资本和纪源资本那样拆分与中国有联系的投资实体也许不能解决委员会对美国的资本和技术最终流入中国企业的担忧。最近从红杉分拆出去的红杉中国的投资人中有美国投资者。委员会的报告称,红杉中国、以及从纪源分离出去的纪源亚洲也能投资美国的初创企业。

Much of the report focuses on Walden International, a California-based company that was one the earliest and most influential foreign investors in the Chinese chip sector. Walden is led by Lip-Bu Tan, the former chief executive of Cadence Design Systems, a chip design firm, and a current board member at Intel.

报告的大部分内容关注的是华登国际,这家公司的总部设在加州,是中国芯片行业最早、最有影响力的外国投资者之一。华登由陈立武领导,他曾任芯片设计公司Cadence Design Systems的首席执行官,现任英特尔董事会成员。

Walden International created various funds for the chip sector in partnership with the Chinese government and Chinese state-owned companies, including a prominent military supplier, the report said.

委员会的报告称,华登国际与中国政府和中国国有企业(包括一家著名的军事供应商)合作,为中国芯片行业设立了各种各样的基金。

It was a founding shareholder and early source of financing for SMIC, which is now subject to U.S. trade restrictions because of its ties to the Chinese military. Walden gave $52 million to SMIC over several decades, the committee found, as well as tens of millions of dollars to SMIC affiliates. Mr. Tan also served on SMIC’s board of directors.

华登是中芯国际的创始股东和早期资金来源。中芯国际因其与中国军方的关系,现在受到美国的贸易限制。该委员会发现,华登在过去几十年里对中芯国际的投资达5200万美元,并对中芯国际下属的公司投入数千万美元的资金。陈立武还曾是中芯国际董事会成员。

He is credited with bringing SMIC and other firms a combination of financing, tools and intellectual property for chip design, as well as profitable connections with customers.

他为中芯国际和其他公司带来了芯片设计方面的融资、工具和知识产权,以及有益的客户人脉。

While SMIC was labeled a “trusted customer” by the U.S. government in 2007, skepticism of the company’s activities has grown in Washington in more recent years. Today, the company is key to China’s ambitions to create a thriving chip sector and lessen its dependence on the United States.

虽然中芯国际曾在2007年被美国政府称为“值得信赖的客户”,但近年来,华盛顿对这家公司的活动的怀疑有所增长。如今,中芯国际已成为中国实现芯片产业蓬勃发展、减少对美国依赖的关键。

Walden, along with Qualcomm Ventures, the investing arm of chipmaker Qualcomm, invested tens of millions of dollars into Advanced Micro-Fabrication Equipment, or AMEC, a Chinese company that makes the machines needed to manufacture chips. AMEC, a supplier to SMIC and other Chinese chipmakers, is vital to China’s efforts to build up its chip making industry after the United States placed restrictions on selling China the most advanced chip making machines.

华登以及芯片制造商高通的投资部门高通风投为中微半导体设备(上海)有限公司投了数千万美元的资金,这家中国公司生产制造芯片所需的机器。中微是中芯国际和其他中国芯片制造商的设备供应者,在美国限制向中国出售最先进的芯片制造设备后,该公司对中国发展芯片制造产业的努力至关重要。

China’s semiconductor companies are well funded by the country’s government. But ties with U.S. venture capital firms provide Chinese companies with managerial expertise as well as access to technology and the American and European markets. American venture capital firms have also tried to sway U.S. officials and regulators on behalf of Chinese companies in their portfolio, like TikTok.

中国的半导体公司得到政府的大力支持。但与美国风险投资公司的关系为它们提供了管理专业知识,以及获得技术、进入美国和欧洲市场的机会。美国风险投资公司也试图替其投资组合中像TikTok这样的中国公司说话,影响美国的官员和监管机构。


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BRIAN X. CHEN

2024年2月8日

记者布莱恩·陈为TechFix专栏试用苹果Vision Pro。 Clara Mokri for The New York Times

About 17 years ago, Steve Jobs took the stage at a San Francisco convention center and said he was introducing three products: an iPod, a phone and an internet browser.

约17年前,史蒂夫·乔布斯在旧金山会议中心的舞台上说,他将介绍三款产品:一台iPod、一台手机和一个网络浏览器。

“These are not three separate devices,” he said. “This is one device, and we are calling it iPhone.”

“这不是三款独立的设备,”他说,“这是一款设备,我们称之为iPhone。”

At $500, the first iPhone was relatively expensive, but I was eager to dump my mediocre Motorola flip phone and splurge. There were flaws — including sluggish cellular internet speeds. But the iPhone delivered on its promises.

第一代iPhone的售价为500美元,相对昂贵,但我当时急于扔掉我那部平庸的摩托罗拉翻盖手机,而且想挥霍一番。它也有缺陷,包括蜂窝网络速度缓慢。但iPhone兑现了它的宣传承诺。

Over the last week, I’ve had a very different experience with a new first-generation product from Apple: the Vision Pro, a virtual reality headset that resembles a pair of ski goggles. The $3,500 wearable computer, which was released Friday, uses cameras so you can see the outside world while juggling apps and videos.

过去一周里,苹果最新的第一代产品——Vision Pro,一款类似滑雪镜的虚拟现实头戴设备带给了我截然不同的使用体验。这款售价3500美元的可穿戴电脑于上周五发布,它配备了摄像头,让你在使用应用程序、观看视频的同时看到外面的世界。

Apple calls it a “spatial computer” that blends together the physical and digital worlds for people to work, watch movies and play games.

苹果称其为“空间计算设备”,可以将物理世界和数字世界融合在一起,供人们工作、看电影和玩游戏。

Apple declined to provide an early review unit to The New York Times, so I bought a Vision Pro on Friday. (It costs much more than $3,500 with the add-ons that many people will want, including a $200 carrying case, $180 AirPods and $100 prescription lens inserts for people who wear glasses.) After using the headset for about five days, I’m unconvinced that people will get much value from it.

苹果拒绝向《纽约时报》提供早期评测机,因此我在上周五购买了一台Vision Pro。(加上许多人会想要的附加设备——包括200美元的便携包、180美元的AirPods和100美元的镜片——整体价格远高于3500美元。)在使用了大约五天之后,我不相信人们会从中获得多少价值。

The device feels less polished than past first-generation Apple products I’ve used. It’s not better for doing work than a computer, and the games I’ve tried so far aren’t fun, which makes it difficult to recommend. An important feature — the ability to place video calls with a humanlike digital avatar that resembles the wearer — terrified children during a family FaceTime call.

与我使用过的苹果第一代产品相比,这款设备感觉不够精致。它并不比电脑更适合工作,而且我目前试玩的游戏也不好玩,因此很难推荐给大家。一个重要的功能——与以佩戴者为原型生成的数字角色进行视频通话——在家庭FaceTime通话时吓坏了孩子们。

The headset is superb at delivering on one of its promises: playing video, including high-definition movies and your own recordings in 3-D that let you immerse yourself in past memories, which is both eerie and cool.

这款头戴设备在一个方面出色地兑现了其宣传承诺:播放视频,包括高清电影和你自己录制的3D视频,让你沉浸在过去的回忆中,这既怪异又酷。

In the last decade, companies like Meta, HTC and Sony have struggled mightily to sell headsets to mainstream consumers because their products were cumbersome to wear, their apps were limited and they looked uncool.

过去十年里,Meta、HTC和索尼等公司在向主流消费者销售头戴式设备方面一直举步维艰,因为它们的产品佩戴麻烦、应用有限,而且看起来不酷。

The Vision Pro has a superior user interface, better picture quality, more apps and higher computing power than other headsets. But it’s slightly heavier than Meta’s cheaper Quest headsets, and it plugs into an external battery pack that lasts only two hours.

与其他头戴式设备相比,Vision Pro有更出色的用户界面、更好的画质、更多的应用程序和更强的计算能力。但它比更便宜的Meta Quest头戴式设备稍重,插入外置电池组后续航时间只有两小时。

The ski-goggle aesthetic of the Apple product looks better than the bulky plastic headset visors of the past. But the videos posted by early adopters walking around outside with the headset — men I call Vision Bros — confirm that people still look ridiculous wearing tech goggles, even when they are designed by Apple.

与过去笨重的塑料头戴式面罩相比,苹果产品的护目镜美观大方。但是,早期用户——我称他们为“Vision同好”——戴着这款设备在户外走动的视频证明,人们戴着科技眼镜的样子仍然很滑稽,即使它们是由苹果设计的。

A Better Interface

更好的界面

07TECHFIX HEADSET vgbm jumbo
这款头戴设备在播放视频,包括高清电影方面表现出色。 Clara Mokri for The New York Times
07TECHFIX 04 ljmp jumbo
与过去笨重的面罩式头戴设备相比,滑雪镜式的美感更好。 Clara Mokri for The New York Times
07TECHFIX 02 ljmp jumbo
本文的专栏作家用手指操作浮动屏幕。 Clara Mokri for The New York Times
07TECHFIX 03 ljmp jumbo
Vision Pro比Meta便宜的Quest稍重。 Clara Mokri for The New York Times

The Vision Pro is miles ahead of other headsets I’ve tested in making an immersive 3-D interface simple for users to control with their eyes and hands. I let four colleagues wear the headset in the office and watched all of them learn to use it in seconds.

与我测试过的其他头戴式设备相比,Vision Pro在令沉浸式三维界面变得简单方面遥遥领先,用户可以用眼睛和双手轻松控制。我让四位同事在办公室戴上这款设备,他们都在几秒钟内学会了使用。

That’s because it’s familiar to anyone who owns an iPhone or a similar smartphone. You’ll see a grid of app icons. Looking at an app is equivalent to hovering over it with a mouse cursor; to click on it, you tap your thumb and index finger together, making a quick pinch. The pinch gesture can also be used to move around and expand windows.

这是因为拥有iPhone或类似智能手机的人对它都很熟悉。你会看到一个由应用程序图标组成的网格。查看一个应用就相当于用鼠标光标悬停在该应用上;要点击该应用,你可以将拇指和食指轻点在一起,做出快速捏合的手势。捏合手势还可用于移动和扩展窗口。

07TECHFIX 01 ljmp master1050苹果公司的蒂姆·库克称它为“空间计算机”,将物理世界和数字世界融为一体。07TECHFIX 05 ljmp master1050Apple Vision Pro电池组的续航时间为两小时。

The Vision Pro includes a knob called the Digital Crown. Turning it counterclockwise lets you see the real world in the background while keeping digital windows of your apps in the foreground. Turning it clockwise hides the real world with an opaque background.

Vision Pro有一个名为“数码表冠”的旋钮。逆时针旋转旋钮时,可以在后台看到真实世界,同时将应用程序的数字窗口保留在前台。顺时针旋转时,现实世界会隐藏在不透明的背景后。

I preferred to see into physical reality most of the time, but I still felt isolated. The headset cuts off part of your periphery, creating a binoculars-like effect. I confess that it was hard at times to remember to walk my dogs because I didn’t see them or hear their whining, and in another session, I tripped over a stool. An Apple spokeswoman referred to the Vision Pro’s safety guidelines, which advise users to clear away obstacles.

大多数时候,我更愿意看到现实世界,但我仍然感到与世隔绝。这个头戴设备切断了你的部分外围,营造出类似双筒望远镜的效果。我承认,有时候这让我很难记住去遛狗,因为我看不到它们,也听不到它们的哀叫。还有一次,我被凳子绊倒了。苹果发言人提到了Vision Pro的安全指南,该指南建议用户清除周围的障碍物

Getting Work Done

完成工作

When using the headset for work, you can surround yourself with multiple floating apps — your spreadsheet can be in the center, a notes app to your right and a browser to your left, for example. It’s the 3-D version of juggling windows on a computer screen. As neat as that sounds, pinching floating screens doesn’t make working more efficient because you need to keep twisting your head to see them.

使用这个头戴设备工作时,你可以让多个浮动应用围绕着自己——例如,可以把电子表格放在中间,笔记应用放在右边,浏览器放在左边。这是在电脑屏幕上切换窗口的3D版。虽然听起来很有趣,但是捏住浮动屏幕操作并不能提高工作效率,因为你需要不断扭头才能看到它们。

I could tolerate juggling a notes app, a browser and the Microsoft Word app for no longer than 15 minutes before feeling nauseated.

我可以忍受在笔记应用程序、浏览器和微软Word应用程序之间切换的时间不超过15分钟,然后就会觉得恶心。

The least joyful part of the Vision Pro is typing with its floating keyboard, which requires poking one key at a time. I had planned to write this review with the headset before realizing I wouldn’t make my deadline.

Vision Pro最让人不愉快的部分是用悬浮键盘打字,这需要每次都戳一个键。我本打算用这个头戴设备来写这篇评论,但后来意识到,这样下去就没法在截稿日期前完成了。

There’s an option to connect a physical keyboard, but at that point I’d rather use a laptop that doesn’t add weight to my face.

有一个连接物理键盘的选项,但在这种情况下,我宁愿使用不会给我的脸增加重量的笔记本电脑。

The Vision Pro can also work with Mac computers, where you can mirror the screen into the headset as a virtual window that can be expanded to look like a large display. In my tests, there was a consistent lag — each keystroke took a fraction of a second to register virtually, and the mouse cursor moved sluggishly. I also instinctively wanted to control the Mac with pinches, even though it’s not set up to work that way, which was frustrating.

Vision Pro还可以与Mac电脑配合使用,你可以将电脑屏幕镜像到头戴设备中,作为一个虚拟窗口,可以将它扩展成一个大显示器。在我的测试中,出现了持续的延迟——每次击键都需要几分之一秒的时间来显示,而且鼠标光标移动缓慢。我还本能地想用捏动来控制Mac,尽管它的设置并不是这样的,这让我很沮丧。

Next I tried the headset in the kitchen, loading a pizza recipe in the web browser while I grabbed and measured ingredients. Moving around while looking through the camera, I became nauseated again and had to remove the headset. The Vision Pro is most comfortable to use while seated. Apple advises people to take breaks to reduce motion sickness.

接下来,我在厨房里试了试这个头戴设备,在网页浏览器里下载了一份披萨食谱,同时抓取并称量配料。四处走动,并且通过摄像头看东西的时候,我再次感到恶心,不得不摘下它。Vision Pro坐着使用时是最舒适的。苹果公司建议人们中间休息一下,从而减少晕眩。

Video calling is now an essential part of office life, and here the Vision Pro is especially inferior to a laptop with a camera. The headset uses its cameras to snap photos of your face that are stitched into a 3-D avatar called a Persona, which Apple has labeled a “beta” feature because it is unfinished.

视频通话现在是办公室生活的重要组成部分,在这方面,Vision Pro的表现尤其不如带摄像头的笔记本电脑。这款头戴设备使用摄像头拍摄你的脸部照片,这然后拼接成一个名为Persona的3D头像,苹果称其为“测试版”功能,因为它还没有完成。

Personas are so cringe that people will be embarrassed to use these in a work call. The Vision Pro produced an unflattering portrait of me with no cheekbones and blurred ears. In a FaceTime call with my in-laws, they said the blur conjured 1980s studio portrait vibes.

“Persona”实在让人生厌,以至于人们都不好意思在工作电话中使用它。Vision Pro给我拍了一张不太好看的照片,没有颧骨,耳朵也模糊了。在与我岳父岳母的FaceTime通话中,他们说这种模糊感让人想起上世纪80年代的摄影棚肖像。

One of my nieces, a 3-year-old, turned around and walked away at the sight of virtual Uncle Brian. The other, a 7-year-old, hid behind her father, whispering in his ear, “He looks fake.”

我的一个三岁的侄女一看到这个虚拟的布莱恩叔叔就转身走开了。另一个七岁的女孩躲在父亲身后,在他耳边说:“他看起来很假。”

Are We Entertained?

娱乐效果怎么样?

Video is where the Vision Pro shines. When streaming movies through apps like Disney+ and Max, you can pinch the corner of a video and drag it to expand it into a jumbo high-resolution TV; some movies, like “Avengers: Endgame” and “Avatar 2,” can be viewed in 3-D. The picture looks much brighter and clearer than the quality in Meta’s Quest products. Audio quality on the Apple headset is excellent, but the speakers are loud, so you’ll need AirPods if you want to use them in public spaces.

视频是Vision Pro的亮点。当你通过Disney+和Max等应用流媒体播放电影时,你可以捏住视频的一角,然后拖动它,扩展成一个超大的高分辨率电视;像《复仇者联盟4——终局之战》(Avengers: Endgame)和《阿凡达2》(Avatar 2)这样的电影,可以用3D观看。图像看起来比Meta的Quest产品的画质更明亮、更清晰。苹果头戴设备的音频质量非常好,但扬声器声音太大,所以如果想在公共场所使用,你需要使用AirPods。

The headset’s two-hour battery life is not long enough to last through most feature-length movies, but in my experience, this turned out to be moot because I couldn’t watch movies for more than 20 to 30 minutes before needing to rest my neck and eyes from the heavy headset.

这款头戴设备两小时的电池续航时间不够长,看不完大多数长电影,但根据我的经验,这不重要,因为我看电影的时间不超过20到30分钟,就需要拿下这个沉重的设备,让脖子和眼睛休息一下。

(A caveat: The Netflix and YouTube apps are not available on the Vision Pro, but their websites work OK for streaming content.)

(需要提醒的是:Vision Pro上没有Netflix和YouTube的应用程序,但使用它们的网站可以播放流媒体内容。)

I prefer watching movies on my flat-screen TV because it can be shared, but there are scenarios where a headset would be useful as a personal television, like in a small apartment or on a plane, or on the couch when someone else is watching a TV show that you’d like to tune out from.

我更喜欢在平板电视上看电影,因为可以和他人一起看,但在某些情况下,这款头戴设备作为个人电视也很有用,比如在小公寓或飞机上,或者别人正在看电视节目时,你却不想看。

Videos shot on an iPhone 15 Pro camera or with the Vision Pro’s cameras can be viewed in 3-D on the headset, a feature called spatial videos. While watching a video of my dogs eating snacks at home, I could reach out and pretend to pet them. The videos looked grainy but were delightful.

用iPhone 15 Pro摄像头或Vision Pro摄像头拍摄的视频可以在这款头戴设备上以3D形式观看,这一功能被称为空间视频。当我在家里看我的狗吃零食的视频时,我可以伸出手假装抚摸它们。这些视频看起来有些粗糙,但令人愉快。

Not many games have been made for the headset yet. I tried some new Vision Pro games such as Blackbox, which involves moving around a 3-D environment to pop bubbles and solve puzzles. It looked nice, but after the novelty wore off, my interest fizzled out. It’s tough to recommend the Vision Pro for virtual-reality gaming when Meta’s $250 Quest 2 and $500 Quest 3 headsets have a deeper library of games.

目前针对这款耳机的游戏还不多。我尝试了一些新的Vision Pro游戏,比如Blackbox,这款游戏需要在3D环境中移动,吹破泡泡并解决谜题。它看起来不错,但新鲜感消退后,我的兴趣就消失了。鉴于Meta 250美元的Quest 2500美元的Quest 3头戴设备拥有更丰富的游戏库,很难推荐用Vision Pro来做虚拟现实游戏。

Bottom Line

归根结底

07TECHFIX BRIAN hwcp master1050陈先生在苹果的虚拟现实系统中捏动应用程序。

The Vision Pro is the start of something — of what, exactly, I’m not sure.

Vision Pro是某种开端——具体是什么,我不确定。

But the point of a product review is to evaluate the here and now. In its current state, the Vision Pro is an impressive but incomplete first-generation product with problems and big trade-offs. Other than being a fancy personal TV, it lacks purpose.

但产品评测的重点是评估此时此地。在目前的状态下,Vision Pro是一款令人印象深刻但不完整的第一代产品,存在诸多问题和需要取舍之处。除了作为一款花哨的个人电视,它缺乏目的性。

Most striking to me about the Vision Pro is, for such an expensive computer, how difficult it is to share the headset with others. There’s a guest mode, but there’s no ability to create profiles for different family members to load their own apps and videos.

Vision Pro最让我吃惊的是,对于如此昂贵的电子产品来说,与他人共用这款头戴设备非常困难。它有访客模式,但无法为不同的家庭成员创建个人资料,以加载他们自己的应用程序和视频。

So it’s a computer for people to use alone, arriving at a time when we are seeking to reconnect after years of masked solitude. That may be the Vision Pro’s biggest blind spot.

因此,这是一台供人们独自使用的电脑,然而它的出现正值我们孤独地戴了几年口罩,如今正在寻求与他人重新产生联系的时候,这可能是Vision Pro最大的盲点。

JULIAN E. BARNES

2024年2月8日

司法部对一名出生在中国的美国公民发起诉讼,指控他从一家私营公司窃取商业机密。 Hailey Sadler for The New York Times

The U.S. government announced charges in two separate cases on Wednesday aimed at enforcing laws blocking the transfer of critical technologies, part of a broader campaign to hamper military efforts and weapons production in rival countries.

美国政府周三宣布了两起不同案件的指控,旨在执行切断关键技术转让的法律。美国为阻碍竞争对手国家的军事努力和武器生产而采取了广泛行动,这是其中的一部分。

One of the complaints was against a U.S. citizen born in China who has been arrested and accused of stealing trade secrets from a private company. The technology, according to court documents, “would be dangerous to U.S. national security if obtained by international actors.”

其中一项起诉针对的是一名在中国出生的美国公民,他因从一家私营公司窃取商业机密的指控而被捕。根据法庭文件,该机密技术“如果被国际行为体获得,将危及美国国家安全”。

A Justice Department complaint filed in U.S. District Court in California said the stolen material would help the development of technology that allows space-based systems to track ballistic and hypersonic missiles. U.S. officials said technology related to hypersonic missiles and missile tracking was among the Chinese military’s top priorities.

司法部向加利福尼亚州美国地区法院提交的一份起诉书称,被盗材料将有助于开发一种使天基系统可以跟踪弹道导弹和高超音速导弹的技术。美国官员称,获取与高超音速导弹和导弹跟踪相关的技术是中国军方的首要任务之一。

In the other complaint, the U.S. government accused two Iranian men of trying to illegally procure American goods and technology for Iran’s aerospace industry. The technology, according to court documents, involved firefighting equipment and flame detectors.

另一份起诉书中,美国政府指控两名伊朗男子试图为伊朗航空航天部门非法采购美国商品和技术。法庭文件显示,这些技术涉及消防设备和火焰探测器。

The charges are the latest in a series of legal actions aimed at cutting off Iran, Russia and China from American technology. A year ago, the Justice and Commerce Departments formed the Disruptive Technology Strike Force to enforce export control laws and disrupt production of weaponry in Iran meant for Russia and Iranian proxy groups. It was also intended to stall China’s efforts to develop advanced military technology.

这些指控是一系列旨在切断伊朗、俄罗斯和中国获取美国技术的法律行动的最新案例。一年前,美国司法部和商务部成立了“颠覆性技术打击力量小组”,以执行出口管制法,破坏伊朗为俄罗斯和伊朗代理组织进行的武器装备生产。这也是为了阻止中国发展先进军事技术。

Officials from the strike force are meeting with Ukrainian representatives this week in Phoenix to discuss efforts to stop the flow of American technology and U.S.-designed components to Russia, Iran and China.

打击力量小组的官员本周将在凤凰城与乌克兰代表会面,讨论如何切断美国技术和美国设计的部件流向俄罗斯、伊朗和中国。

“Our mission is to keep our country’s most sensitive technology out of the world’s most dangerous hands,” said Matthew S. Axelrod, the Commerce Department’s assistant secretary for export enforcement. “Nation-state actors are attempting to acquire advanced U.S. technology so they can modernize their militaries to such a degree that they leapfrog ours and change the balance of power in the world. Those are the stakes.”

“我们的任务是不让我们国家最敏感的技术落入世界上最危险的人手中,”商务部负责出口执法的助理部长马修·阿克塞尔罗德说。“民族国家行为者正试图获取美国的先进技术,以便使他们的军队现代化,从而超越我们的军队,改变世界的力量平衡。这就是利害关系所在。”

American export controls aimed at Beijing have tried to block its government and Chinese companies from acquiring advanced chips that can be used to develop new military capabilities. Iran, however, is trying to acquire less sophisticated technology and chips, whose export to many other countries is not blocked.

美国针对北京的出口管制试图阻止中国政府和中国公司获取可用于发展新军事能力的先进芯片。然而,伊朗正试图获取不那么尖端的技术和芯片,而这些技术和芯片对许多其他国家的出口并没有受到阻止。

Iran uses those chips to build drones that it supplies to Russia for its war in Ukraine and to Hamas and Houthi rebels, who have used them to attack ships in the Red Sea.

伊朗利用这些芯片制造无人机,提供给俄罗斯用于乌克兰战争,也提供给哈马斯和胡塞叛军,后者曾用这些无人机袭击红海的商船。

“Iran’s malign activity is both destabilizing in the region and supports other malign actors like Russia,” said Matthew G. Olsen, the assistant attorney general for the national security division of the Justice Department.

司法部负责国家安全事务的助理司法部长马修·奥尔森说:“伊朗的恶意活动既破坏了该地区的稳定,又支持了俄罗斯等其他恶意行为体。”

When Mr. Olsen traveled to Kyiv in November, Ukrainian officials presented him with evidence of American technology being used in the Iranian-produced drones that had attacked Ukraine. He said the visit had expanded intelligence sharing between the countries to bolster the American legal investigations.

在奥尔森11月访问基辅时,乌克兰官员向他出示了攻击乌克兰的伊朗产无人机使用美国技术的证据。他说,这次访问扩大了两国之间的情报共享,以支持美国的法律调查。

American officials said it was hard to judge the direct effect of the export controls. Russian production of missiles, for example, was initially slowed by export restrictions. But as Moscow refocused its economy on wartime manufacturing, its missile-production level returned to, then exceeded, prewar capacity.

美国官员表示,很难判断出口管制的直接效果。例如,俄罗斯的导弹生产最初因出口限制而放缓。但随着莫斯科重新将经济重点放在战时生产上,其导弹生产已恢复甚至超过了战前的能力。

Iran’s drone production has fluctuated, potentially because of U.S. pressure on its supply chain. And American officials say they are at the least making it far more expensive and difficult for Iran to supply both its proxy forces and Russia.

伊朗的无人机产量时高时低,可能是因为美国对其供应链施加了压力。美国官员称,这些措施至少使伊朗为其代理部队和俄罗斯供应无人机的成本和难度都大大增加。

“When we’re enforcing sanctions and export control laws, we want to impose costs on the bad actors, including Russian and Iranian actors,” Mr. Olsen said. “We want to charge them, out them publicly and, if possible, arrest them.”

“当我们执行制裁和出口管制法律时,我们希望让包括俄罗斯和伊朗在内的不良行为者付出代价,”奥尔森说。“我们要指控他们,公开揭发他们,如果可能的话,逮捕他们。”

The enforcement actions also have ripple effects, Mr. Olsen said. Bigger companies see how Iran, Russia or China are trying to evade rules and adopt stronger compliance efforts to make sure they are not used in any effort to smuggle the chips.

奥尔森说,执法行动也会产生连锁反应。大公司看到伊朗、俄罗斯或中国是如何试图规避规则的,就会采取更有力的合规措施,以确保它们不会被利用来走私芯片。

“Companies take notice when there’s criminal enforcement and implement stronger compliance regimes,” he said.

他说:“企业会注意到刑事执法,并实施更严格的合规制度。”

In the China case unveiled on Wednesday, a 57-year-old man, Chenguang Gong, was charged with theft of trade secrets. Prosecutors accused Mr. Gong of stealing files last year from a technology company that was not identified. The government complaint does not say if the technology — to identify missile launches and track hard-to-detect objects from space — was sent to China.

在本周三公布的这起涉及中国的案件中,57岁的男子龚晨光(音)被控窃取商业机密罪。检察官指控他在去年从一家科技公司窃取文件,但没有透露这家公司的名称。政府的起诉书没有说明该技术——用于识别导弹发射和追踪太空中难以探测的物体——是否被送到了中国。

But Mr. Gong did not have the software to view the files he had taken from the company, prosecutors wrote in their complaint. Some of the documents were labeled proprietary, and others were labeled export controlled.

但检察官在起诉书中写道,龚晨光没有软件查看他从公司拿走的文件。其中一些文件被标注为专有文件,另一些则被标注为出口管制文件。

Mr. Gong, who had worked for defense contractors and had expertise in developing computer circuits, had previously sought funding from the Chinese government, contacting officials through its various “talent programs.” Beijing uses the programs to identify people who can help develop its economy and military capabilities.

龚晨光曾为国防承包商工作,拥有开发计算机电路的专业知识,他此前曾寻求中国政府的资助,并通过各种人才计划与中国政府官员取得了联系。中国政府利用这些项目来发掘有助于发展经济和军事能力的人才。

The Iran case was not directly related to the country’s drone production but was tied to its aerospace industry.

涉及伊朗的案件与该国的无人机生产没有直接关系,但与该国的航空航天业有关。

Abolfazi Bazzazi, 79, and his son, Mohammad Resa Bazzazi, 43, were accused of creating an intricate scheme to avoid export laws to send aerospace equipment to Iran, shipping the technology to Europe to hide its final destination.

79岁的阿博尔法齐·巴扎齐和他43岁的儿子穆罕默德·雷萨·巴扎齐被指控制定了一项复杂的计划,以规避出口法律,将航空航天设备运往伊朗,并将技术运往欧洲以隐藏其最终目的地。


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ANA SWANSON, SIMON ROMERO

2024年2月8日

墨西哥北部工业中心萨尔蒂约的一家工厂。墨西哥是美国消费者和企业去年转向购买汽车零部件、鞋子、玩具和原材料的市场之一。 Daniel Becerril/Reuters

In the depths of the pandemic, as global supply chains buckled and the cost of shipping a container to China soared nearly twentyfold, Marco Villarreal spied an opportunity.

在新冠病毒大流行最严重的时候,随着全球供应链的崩溃,将集装箱运往中国的成本飙升了近20倍,而马可·比利亚雷亚尔发现了一个机会。

In 2021, Mr. Villarreal resigned as Caterpillar’s director general in Mexico and began nurturing ties with companies looking to shift manufacturing from China to Mexico. He found a client in Hisun, a Chinese producer of all-terrain vehicles, which hired Mr. Villarreal to establish a $152 million manufacturing site in Saltillo, an industrial hub in northern Mexico.

2021年,比利亚雷亚尔辞去了卡特彼勒的墨西哥总经理一职,开始与那些考虑将制造业从中国转移到墨西哥的公司建立联系。他找到的一个客户是中国全地形车生产商环松,该公司聘请比利亚雷亚尔在墨西哥北部的工业中心萨尔蒂约建一个 价值1.52亿美元的制造业基地。

Mr. Villarreal said foreign companies, particularly those seeking to sell within North America, saw Mexico as a viable alternative to China for several reasons, including the simmering trade tensions between the United States and China.

比利亚雷亚尔说,外国公司,尤其是那些寻求在北美销售的公司,将墨西哥视为中国之外的另一个可行选择,原因有几个,其中一个是美中日益紧张的贸易关系。

“The stars are aligning for Mexico,” he said.

“目前的情况对墨西哥有利,”他说。

New data released on Wednesday showed that Mexico outpaced China to become America’s top source of official imports for the first time in 20 years — a significant shift that highlights how increased tensions between Washington and Beijing are altering trade flows.

周三公布的新数据显示,墨西哥已在20年来首次超过中国,在官方统计中成为美国最大的进口来源国,这个重大转变凸显了中美日益紧张的关系正在如何改变贸易流动。

The United States’ trade deficit with China narrowed significantly last year, with goods imports from the country dropping 20 percent to $427.2 billion, the data shows. American consumers and businesses turned to Mexico, Europe, South Korea, India, Canada and Vietnam for auto parts, shoes, toys and raw materials.

数据显示,美国去年的对华贸易逆差大幅收窄,美国从中国进口的商品额为4272亿美元,同比下降了20%。美国的消费者和企业转向墨西哥、欧洲、韩国、印度、加拿大和越南,购买汽车零部件、鞋子、玩具和原材料。

Mexican exports to the United States were roughly the same as last year, at $475.6 billion.

墨西哥对美国的出口额为4756亿美元,与2022年大致持平。

America’s total trade deficit in goods and services, which consists of exports minus imports, narrowed 18.7 percent. Overall U.S. exports to the world increased slightly in 2023 from the previous year, despite a strong dollar and a soft global economy.

美国的商品和服务贸易逆差总额(总出口额减去总进口额)缩小了18.7%。尽管美元走强,全球经济疲软,美国2023年对世界的总出口额却较上年略有增长。

U.S. imports fell annually as Americans bought less crude oil and chemicals and fewer consumer goods, including cellphones, clothes, camping gear, toys and furniture.

随着美国人购买的原油和化学品减少,手机、衣服、露营装备、玩具和家具等消费品也在减少,美国的进口额逐年下降。

The recent weakness in imports, and drop-off in trade with China, has partially been a reflection of the pandemic. American consumers stuck at home during the pandemic snapped up Chinese-made laptops, toys, Covid tests, athleisure, furniture and home exercise equipment.

美国最近的进口额以及对华贸易的下降在一定程度上反映了新冠病毒大流行期间的异常情况。疫情期间,困在家里的美国消费者购买了大量中国制造的笔记本电脑、玩具、新冠病毒检测盒、运动休闲服装、家具,以及家庭健身器材。

Even as concerns about the coronavirus faded in 2022, the United States continued to import a lot of Chinese products, as bottlenecks at congested U.S. ports finally cleared and businesses restocked their warehouses.

尽管2022年人们对新冠病毒的担忧逐渐消失,但随着造成美国港口拥堵的物流瓶颈终于恢复畅通,企业补充了仓库存货,美国仍继续进口了大量中国产品。

“The world couldn’t get access to enough Chinese goods in ’21, and it gorged on Chinese goods in ’22,” said Brad Setser, an economist and senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. “Everything has been normalizing since then.”

“由于世界在2021年无法得到足够多的中国商品,它在2022年大肆购买中国货,”美国外交关系委员会的经济学家和高级研究员布拉德·塞策说。“那之后,一切已恢复正常。”

But beyond the unusual swings in annual patterns in the last few years, trade data is beginning to provide compelling evidence that years of heightened tensions have significantly chipped away at America’s trading relationship with China.

但贸易数据不仅表现了过去几年的异常大起大落,也提供了令人信服的证据,表明多年来的紧张局势已显著削弱了美中贸易关系。

In 2023, U.S. quarterly imports from China were at roughly the same level as they were 10 years ago, despite a decade of growth in the American economy and rising U.S. imports from elsewhere in the world.

2023年,美国从中国的季度进口额与十年前的水平大致相同,尽管美国经济十年来一直在增长,而且美国从世界其他地方的进口不断增加。

“We are decoupling, and that’s weighing heavily on trade flows,” Mark Zandi, the chief economist of Moody’s Analytics, said of the United States and China.

“我们正在脱钩,这对贸易流动有重大影响,”穆迪分析公司的首席经济学家马克·赞迪在谈到美国和中国时说。

Economists say the relative decrease in trade with China is clearly linked to the tariffs imposed by the Trump administration and then maintained by the Biden administration.

经济学家说,美中贸易的相对下降与加征关税有明显的关系,关税是特朗普政府加征的,之后的拜登政府维持了关税。

Research by Caroline Freund, the dean of the University of California at San Diego’s School of Global Policy and Strategy, showed that trade with China fell for products that have high tariffs, like screwdrivers and smoke detectors, while trade in products that do not have tariffs, like hair dryers and microwave ovens, continued to grow.

加州大学圣迭哥分校的全球政策与战略学院院长卡罗琳·弗罗因德的研究显示,美国从中国进口的螺丝刀和烟雾探测器等高关税产品减少,与此同时,吹风机和微波炉等未加征关税产品的进口额继续增长。

Ralph Ossa, the chief economist for the World Trade Organization, said that trade between the United States and China had not collapsed, but that it had been growing about 30 percent more slowly than trade between those countries and the rest of the world.

世界贸易组织的首席经济学家拉尔夫·奥萨说,美中贸易虽然没有崩溃,但增长速度比两国与世界其他国家之间的贸易增长速度要慢30%左右。

There were two episodes in recent history where U.S. trade with China slowed notably, he said. The first was when trade tensions between the countries escalated in 2018. The second was when Russia invaded Ukraine, prompting the United States and its allies to impose strict sanctions and further reshuffling global trade relationships.

他说,近期历史上有过两次中美贸易显着放缓的情况。第一次是2018年两国的贸易紧张局势升级。第二次是俄罗斯入侵乌克兰,导致美国及其盟友严厉制裁俄罗斯,全球贸易关系进一步重新洗牌。

07dc trade 02 jwpg master1050中国江苏省的南京港。美国和中国之间的高关税产品贸易额已下降。

“There was a period where geopolitics didn’t really matter for trade much, but as uncertainty increases in the world, we do see that trade becomes more sensitive to these positions,” said Stela Rubinova, a research economist at the World Trade Organization.

“曾有过一段地缘政治对贸易没有多大影响的时间,但随着世界上不确定性的增加,我们的确看到贸易变得对这些问题更敏感,”在世贸组织研究经济的学者斯特拉·鲁宾诺娃说。

Some economists caution that the U.S. reduction in trade with China might not be as sharp as bilateral data shows. That is because like Hisun, the Chinese vehicle producer, some multinationals have shifted portions of their manufacturing out of China and into other countries but continued sourcing some raw materials and parts from China.

一些经济学家警告,美国对华贸易的减少也许并不像双边贸易数据显示的那么严重。这是因为,与中国汽车生产商环松一样,一些跨国公司已将部分制造业务从中国转移到了其他国家,但它们继续从中国采购一些原材料和零部件。

In other cases, companies may simply be routing goods that are actually made in China through other countries to avoid U.S. tariffs.

还有些情况是,公司可能只是将实际上在中国制造的商品通过其他国家运往美国,以避免关税。

U.S. trade statistics do not record such products as coming from China, even though a significant portion of their value would have been created there.

美国的贸易统计数据并没有将这类进口产品归为来自中国,尽管其价值的很大一部分是中国创造的。

Ms. Freund, who wrote a recent paper on the subject, said the two countries’ trade relationship was “definitely being attenuated, but not as much as the official statistics suggest.”

弗罗因德最近写过一篇有关这个问题的论文,她说,美中贸易关系“肯定是在减弱,但不像官方统计数据显示的那么严重”。

Still, geopolitical risks are clearly pushing companies to look to other markets, particularly those with low costs and stable trading relationships with the United States, like Mexico.

尽管如此,地缘政治风险正在明显地推动企业转向其他市场,尤其是那些制造成本低、与美国贸易关系稳定的市场,例如墨西哥。

Jesús Carmona, the president for Mexico and Central America at Schneider Electric, the French electrical equipment giant, said that the Biden administration’s 2022 climate law and geopolitical tensions stemming from the war in Ukraine were both factors pushing companies toward Mexico.

法国电气设备巨头施耐德电气的墨西哥和中美洲总裁赫苏斯·卡莫纳表示,拜登政府2022年通过的气候法、俄乌战争引发的地缘政治紧张局势,都是推动企业转向墨西哥的因素。

When China appeared to align with Russia in the conflict, “it triggered all sorts of alarms,” Mr. Carmona said. “People realized we cannot have such dependencies on China, which we built up over the last 40 years as we were making China the factory of the world.”

中国在俄乌战争中似乎站在俄罗斯一边,“引起了各种各样的警觉,”卡莫纳说。“人们意识到,我们不能如此依赖中国,这种依赖是我们在过去40年里形成的,我们让中国变成了世界工厂。”

Schneider, which already had a substantial presence in Mexico with nine factories and nearly 12,000 employees, decided in 2021 that it needed to grow further in the country. Now, after opening new manufacturing sites and expanding existing plants, the company has about 16,000 employees in Mexico, with plans for that number to soon reach about 20,000.

施耐德在墨西哥已经有了庞大的业务规模,它在那里有九家工厂和近1.2万名员工,并于2021年决定在墨西哥进一步发展。在建设了新生产基地、扩建了现有工厂后,施耐德目前在墨西哥有大约1.6万名员工,并计划很快将员工人数增加到约2万名。

Schneider sends about 75 percent to 80 percent of its production in Mexico to the United States, including an array of products like circuit breakers and panels used to distribute and regulate electrical power.

施耐德把在墨西哥生产的产品中的约75%至80%销往美国,其中包括用于配电和电力调节的断路器和面板等一系列产品。

While foreign direct investment in developing countries fell 9 percent in 2023, the flow of such investment to Mexico surged 21 percent last year, according the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

据联合国贸易和发展会议的数据,尽管发展中国家的外国直接投资2023年下降了9%,但流向墨西哥的此类投资去年激增了21%

Another economy caught in the shifting tides between the United States and China has been South Korea. Like Mexico, South Korea is subject to lower tariffs because it has a free trade deal with the United States. In December, U.S. imports from South Korea were the highest on record.

另一个受美中贸易变化趋势影响的经济体是韩国。韩国与墨西哥一样,享有美国的低关税待遇,因为韩国与美国签订了自由贸易协定。去年12月,美国从韩国的进口额创下了历史新高。

South Korean firms have also particularly benefited from President Biden’s new climate legislation. The U.S. government is offering tax credits for consumers who buy electric vehicles, but it has set certain limits on sourcing parts of those cars from China.

韩国企业尤其从拜登的新气候法中受益。美国政府为鼓励购买电动汽车向消费者提供税收抵免,但对从中国采购这些汽车的零部件设置了一定的限制。

As major manufacturers of electric vehicle batteries and components, South Korean firms have seized the opportunity to participate in newly expanding U.S. vehicle supply chains. One Korean battery manufacturer, SK On, has invested $2.6 billion in a factory in Georgia and is building new facilities in Georgia, Tennessee and Kentucky in partnership with Hyundai and Ford.

作为电动汽车电池和零部件的主要制造商,韩国企业抓住这个机会,加入到最近正在扩张的美国本土汽车供应链的行列。韩国电池制造商SK On投资26亿美元在佐治亚州建厂,并正在与现代和福特合作,在佐治亚州、田纳西州和肯塔基州建新工厂。

07dc trade 03 jwpg master1050位于佐治亚州科默斯的SK电池工厂。

Min Sung, the chief commercial officer of SK On, said that China was getting more restrictive for Korean businesses. Meanwhile, the U.S. constraints on China benefiting from electric vehicle tax credits had given Korean businesses “more space to play.”

SK On的首席商务官成敏(音)表示,中国对韩国企业的限制越来越多。与此同时,美国限制中国从电动汽车税收抵免中受益的做法给了韩国企业“更多发挥作用的空间”。

“In order for business to survive, you always find the market that’s got more potential,” Mr. Sung said.

“为了企业生存,总要去寻找更有潜力的市场,”成敏说。

As major Korean companies like SK, LG, Samsung and Hyundai build new facilities to make products in the United States, that also appears to be increasing U.S. trade with South Korea since companies are importing some materials, machinery and parts from their home countries to supply the new facilities.

随着SK、LG、三星和现代等韩国大公司在美国建新厂生产产品,美国与韩国的贸易似乎也在增加,因为这些韩国公司为供应新设施,正在从本国进口一些材料、机械和零部件。

In December, Korean exports to the United States surpassed Korean exports to China for the first time in 20 years, driven by shipments of vehicles, electric batteries and other parts.

去年12月,在汽车、电池和其他零部件出口的推动下,韩国对美国的出口额20年来首次超过了韩国对中国的出口额。

Mr. Sung agreed that increasing American skepticism of China was pushing the United States and South Korea closer together.

成敏同意这个说法:美国对中国日益增长的怀疑正在将美国与韩国推得更近。

“It’s never been stronger than the last couple of years between two allies,” he said.

“两个盟国之间的关系从未像过去几年这样紧密,”他说。

TRIPP MICKLE

2024年2月7日

今年1月,微软对其视频游戏部门进行了裁员。 Ruth Fremson/The New York Times

After a year of big layoffs, job cuts at the tech industry’s largest companies trickled into the first month of 2024.

经历了一年的大规模裁员之后,科技行业最大几家公司裁员工作在2024年的第一个月悄然展开。

Google started the year with layoffs of several hundred employees and a promise of more cuts to come. Amazon followed by trimming hundreds of jobs in its Prime Video department. Meta quietly thinned out middle management. Microsoft also cut 1.900 jobs in its video game division.

今年年初,谷歌裁员数百人,并指出将进一步裁员。随后,亚马逊在Prime视频部门裁减了数以百计个工作岗位。Meta悄悄地精简了中层管理人员。微软也在视频游戏部门裁员1900人

The layoffs continued even as sales and profits jumped and share prices spiked. That disconnect, tech insiders and analysts say, is reflective of an industry facing two big challenges: coming to terms with frenetic work force expansion during the pandemic while also making an aggressive move into building artificial intelligence.

尽管销售额和利润大幅增长,股价飙升,裁员仍在继续。科技业内人士和分析人士表示,这种反差反映了行业面临的两大挑战:一方面要适应疫情期间疯狂的劳动力扩张,另一方面要积极进军人工智能领域。

Now, instead of hiring thousands of people every quarter, the companies are spending billions to build A.I. technology that they believe could one day be worth trillions.

现在,这些公司不再每个季度招聘数千员工,而是投入数十亿美元开发人工智能技术,他们认为这些技术有朝一日可能价值数万亿美元。

Mark Zuckerberg, the chief executive of Meta, said in a call with analysts last week that his company had to lay off employees and control costs “so we can invest in these long-term, ambitious visions around A.I.” He added that he had come to realize that “we operate better as a leaner company.”

Meta的首席执行官马克·扎克伯格上周在与分析师的电话会议上表示,他的公司必须裁员并控制成本,“这样我们才能投资于这些围绕人工智能的长期、雄心勃勃的愿景”。他还说,他已经意识到,“我们作为一家更精简的公司,运营得更好”。

From the end of 2019 to 2023, tech companies scrambled to keep up with an explosion of consumer demand, as people stuck at home splurged on new computers and spent much more time online. Apple, Amazon, Meta, Microsoft and Alphabet, Google’s parent company, added a total of more than 900,000 jobs.

从2019年底到2023年,科技公司争先恐后地跟上消费者需求的爆炸式增长,因为宅在家里的人们纷纷购买新电脑,上网时间也大大增加。苹果、亚马逊、Meta、微软和谷歌的母公司Alphabet总共增加了90多万个就业岗位。

When that boom ended, they were forced to adjust. Meta, Amazon, Microsoft, Google and Apple cut about 112,000 jobs from their respective peaks in 2021 and 2022. But they were still much bigger and more profitable than before the pandemic began.

这一繁荣期结束后,他们被迫进行调整。Meta、亚马逊、微软、谷歌和苹果分别在2021年和2022年削减了约11.2万个工作岗位。但与疫情开始之前相比,它们的规模和利润仍然要大得多。

Today, the five companies employ 2.16 million people, 71 percent more than they had before the pandemic. Combined, they generated $1.63 trillion in sales in their most recent fiscal years, about 81 percent more revenue than five years earlier.

如今,这五家公司雇佣了216万人,比疫情前增加了71%。在最近的一个财政年度里,它们总共创造了1.63万亿美元的销售额,比五年前增长了约81%。

Wall Street has rewarded them. Over the past year, Meta, Amazon, Microsoft, Google and Apple have gained nearly $3.5 trillion in market value.

华尔街奖励了他们。在过去的一年里,Meta、亚马逊、微软、谷歌和苹果的市值增长了近3.5万亿美元。

Employment in the broader tech industry, despite notable cuts at a number of other companies, is still positioned for a rebound. In January, tech delivered its second month of job growth, adding 18,000 workers, according to CompTIA, a technology education and research organization. Its unemployment rate of 3.3 percent is below the national average of 3.7 percent.

尽管其他一些公司也有大幅裁员,但整个科技行业的就业仍有望反弹。根据技术教育和研究机构CompTIA的数据,今年1月,科技行业的就业岗位连续第二个月出现增长,增加了1.8万名员工。它的失业率为3.3%,低于3.7%的全国平均水平

“We go through these cycles where you see this intense focus on innovation and then the pendulum swings and there’s an intense focus on the bottom line,” said Tim Herbert, CompTIA’s chief research officer. “But when I read that Amazon is cutting back on Alexa workers or Google is cutting staff on its Pixel phone, it tells me there is a focus on margins. They’re trimming where they can and redeploying resources.”

“我们经历了这样的周期,你会看到对创新的强烈关注,然后钟摆摆动,人们会强烈关注收支平衡,”CompTIA首席研究官蒂姆·赫伯特表示。“但当我看到亚马逊正在裁减Alexa员工,或者谷歌正在裁减其Pixel手机的员工时,我就知道,他们关注的是利润率。他们正在尽可能地裁员,并重新部署资源。”

Generative artificial intelligence has altered everyone’s business priorities. The technology, which can answer questions, create images and write code, became an overnight sensation after OpenAI’s chatbot, ChatGPT, exploded in popularity.

生成式人工智能已经改变了所有人的业务重点。在OpenAI的聊天机器人ChatGPT爆红后,这项可以回答问题、创建图像和编写代码的技术一夜之间引起了轰动

Tech’s biggest companies are rushing to hire engineers to build A.I. systems. Last year, there were 180,000 job postings in the United States related to A.I., including roles in software development, semiconductor engineering and cloud computing, according to CompTIA. The number of A.I. job openings has expanded this year.

最大的科技公司都在争相招聘工程师来构建人工智能系统。根据CompTIA的数据,去年美国有18万个与人工智能相关的职位,包括软件开发、半导体工程和云计算方面的职位。今年,人工智能领域的职位空缺有所增加。

Those employees are helping Microsoft, Google, Amazon and Meta improve chatbots and build other A.I. systems. Apple is hiring for A.I. engineers, as the company develops its own A.I. offering to release later this year.

这些员工正在帮助微软、谷歌、亚马逊和Meta改进聊天机器人,并构建其他人工智能系统。苹果正在招聘人工智能工程师,该公司正在开发自己的人工智能产品,将于今年晚些时候发布。

“Our M.O., if you will, has always been to do work and then talk about work and not to get out in front of ourselves,” Tim Cook, the chief executive of Apple, said on a call with analysts last week. “But we’ve got some things that we’re incredibly excited about.”

“可以说,我们的做法一直是先做工作,然后再谈论工作,而不是事先就吹嘘。”苹果首席执行官蒂姆·库克上周在与分析师的电话会议上说, “但我们已经有了一些让我们非常兴奋的东西。”

The companies are spending billions of dollars on the expensive chips and supercomputers necessary to train and build A.I. systems. By the end of the year, Meta expects to have purchased 350,000 of specialized chips from the chip maker Nvidia, which cost an estimated $30,000 each.

这些公司正在花费数十亿美元购买训练和构建人工智能系统所需的昂贵芯片和超级计算机。到今年年底,Meta预计将从芯片制造商英伟达购买35万个专用芯片,每个芯片的成本估计为3万美元。

The push into generative A.I. has coincided with cuts elsewhere. Google’s layoffs reduced the number of people working on augmented reality technology. Meta, which laid off nearly 20,000 people last year, has been cutting some of its program managers, who oversee different projects and are responsible for keeping teams on schedule.

在推动生成式人工智能发展的同时,其他领域则在裁员。谷歌减少了从事增强现实技术的人数。Meta去年裁掉了近2万人,它一直在裁掉一些项目经理,这些人负责监督不同的项目,并确保团队的工作进度。

Over two years, 2020 and 2021, Amazon doubled its work force to 1.6 million employees as it tried to keep up with a surge of e-commerce orders. The hiring included increasing the number of corporate jobs to 380,000 from 200,000. It has since cut about 30,000 corporate jobs and about 50,000 other jobs, according to a person with knowledge of the changes, and its leadership has made clear that those jobs won’t return any time soon.

在2020年和2021年的两年时间里,亚马逊的员工人数翻了一番,达到160万人,因为它试图跟上电子商务订单的激增。那次的雇用高潮将企业职位从20万个增加到38万个。据一位知情人士透露,此后该公司削减了约3万个企业职位和约5万个其他职位。该公司领导层明确表示,这些职位不会很快恢复。

“We’re looking to hold the line on head count,” Brian Olsavsky, the chief financial officer of Amazon, said during a media call last week.

亚马逊首席财务官布莱恩·奥尔萨夫斯基上周在一次媒体电话会议上表示:“我们希望控制员工人数。”

After laying off more than a thousand employees in January, Google warned employees that rolling layoffs could continue through the year. The exception would be bringing aboard top engineers, Ruth Porat, chief financial officer of Alphabet, Google’s parent company, said during a call with analysts last week.

在1月份解雇了1000多名员工后,谷歌警告员工,滚动裁员可能会持续到今年。谷歌母公司Alphabet的首席财务官露丝·波拉特上周在与分析师的电话会议上表示,引进顶级工程师是个例外。

In contrast with its peers, Apple showed restraint with hiring during the pandemic. But last year, as sales of iPhones, iPads and Macs dropped, the company began to shrink its work force. For the first time in at least 15 years, it reported that its total number of employees declined, even as it avoided making major layoffs.

与同类公司相比,苹果在疫情期间对招聘采取克制态度。但去年,随着iPhone、iPad和Mac销量下降,该公司开始缩减员工规模。至少15年来,该公司首次报告称其员工总数有所减少,尽管它避免了大规模裁员。

The 3,000 fewer jobs that Apple reported at the end of its most recent fiscal year were eliminated largely through attrition, and by encouraging some managers to give tougher annual reviews, according to three people with knowledge of the company’s strategy.

据三名了解苹果战略的人士透露,苹果在最近一个财年结束时宣布裁员3000人,主要是通过自然减员,以及鼓励一些管理人员给出更严格的年度评估来实现的。

An Apple spokesman declined to comment.

苹果发言人拒绝置评。

Microsoft is the only tech company that didn’t report a reduction in its total number of employees. The company employed 221,000 people at the end of its 2023 fiscal year, equal to its post-pandemic peak.

微软是唯一一家没有报告员工总数减少的科技公司。该公司在2023财年末雇佣了22.1万名员工,与疫情后的峰值持平。

Investors have rewarded Microsoft’s stability. Last month, it dethroned Apple as the world’s most valuable company. Its market value is now more than $3 trillion.

投资者对微软的稳定给予了回报。上个月,它取代苹果成为世界上最有价值的公司,市值目前超过3万亿美元。

MUJIB MASHAL, HARI KUMAR

2024年2月7日

周二,这只鸽子从兽医院获释,此前它被发现在一个印度港口徘徊,翅膀上有中文。 Anshuman Poyrekar/Hindustan Times, via Associated Press

Suspicion of foreign espionage, cursive messages in ancient Chinese, a sensitive microchip — and a suspect that could not be stopped at the border.

外国间谍嫌疑、古汉语草书信息、敏感的微型芯片——还有一个在边境无法拦截的嫌犯。

Ravindar Patil, the assistant Mumbai police sub-inspector assigned to the case, was scratching his head for answers. But first, he had to find a place to lock up the unusual captive.

被指派负责此案的孟买警方助理副督察拉文达尔·帕蒂尔正在绞尽脑汁寻找答案。但首先,他必须找个地方把这个不寻常的嫌犯关起来。

So he turned to a veterinary hospital in the Indian metropolis, asking it to retrieve a list of “very confidential and necessary” information about the suspect — a black pigeon caught lurking at a port where international vessels dock.

于是,他向这个印度大都市里的一家兽医院求助,让医院提供一份关于嫌犯的“非常机密和必要的”信息清单,而这位嫌犯是一只潜伏在国际船只停靠港口的黑鸽子。

“The police never came to check the pigeon,” said Dr. Mayur Dangar, the manager of the hospital.

医院的经理马尤尔·丹格医生说:“警察从来没有来看过这只鸽子。”

After eight months, the bird was finally set free this week, its innocence of spying for China long confirmed through crack detective work, but the jail doors flung open only after a newspaper report, repeated letters to the police by the veterinary hospital, and intervention from an animal rights group.

八个月后,这只鸽子终于在本周获得了自由,它没有为中国从事间谍活动的清白早已通过侦破工作得到证实,但监狱的大门是通过报纸报道、兽医院多次致函警方以及动物保护组织的干预下才打开的。

The group, PETA India, celebrated what it called the end of a “wrongful imprisonment.”

善待动物组织(PETA)的印度分部庆祝了所谓“错误监禁”的结束。

“PETA India handles 1,000 calls a week of animal emergencies, but this was our first case of a suspected spy who needed to be freed,” said Meet Ashar, who leads the organization’s cruelty response division.

“印度PETA每周要处理1000个紧急求助电话,但这是我们第一例需要解救的间谍嫌犯,”该组织虐待应对部门的负责人米特·阿什尔说。

Mr. Ashar said the case had put the hospital’s staff members in a dilemma: They didn’t want to expose a healthy bird to the sick and injured, but they also couldn’t set it free because “it was such a high-profile case and the charge was so serious.”

阿什尔说,这起案件让医院的工作人员进退两难:他们不想让一只健康的鸽子出现在生病或受伤的动物面前,但他们也不能放走它,因为“这是一起如此引人注目的案件,指控如此严重”。

It is not the first time that India has feared feathered infiltration, but the latest case was a sign of changing times and threats.

这并不是印度第一次担心鸟类渗透,但最新的案件表明时代和威胁都在发生变化。

In 2014, the authorities in the Himalayan region of Kashmir, at the center of tense relations between India and Pakistan, arrested a pigeon near the border on similar charges.

2014年,位于印度和巴基斯坦关系紧张中心的喜马拉雅地区克什米尔当局以类似罪名在边境附近逮捕了一只鸽子。

The bird in Mumbai suggested new twists — it had appeared in a city nowhere near a contested border, and the Chinese writing inked on its wings pointed to a more sophisticated and powerful rival that India has been grappling with in recent years.

孟买的这只鸽子暗示着新的转折——它出现在一个不靠近有争议边界的城市,而它翅膀上墨迹斑斑的汉字则指向另一个对手,印度近年来一直在与这个更老练、更强大的对手周旋。

Mr. Patil, the 39-year-old sub-inspector, had dealt with two animal cases before in his 12-year career: the death of two dogs, one in a suspected poisoning that required a postmortem, and the other in a road accident. Neither case had geopolitical ramifications.

39岁的副督察帕蒂尔在12年的职业生涯中曾处理过两起动物案件:两只狗的死亡,一只疑似中毒,需要进行尸检,另一只死于交通事故。这两起案件都没有地缘政治影响。

This time, however, “I had to ask advice from our intelligence colleagues,” he said in a phone interview.

但这一次,“我不得不征求情报部门同事的意见”,他在接受电话采访时说。

The bird had been spotted by guards with the Central Industrial Security Force, which watches over government facilities like ports. Not the first to cast a critical eye on a pigeon, the duty officer saw this one loitering alone — “it was just sitting there, and it all looked suspicious to them — chip, and ring on the feet,” Mr. Patil said. The guards informed the police.

中央工业安全部队的警卫发现了这只鸽子,该部队负责监管港口等政府设施。值班人员通常不会怀疑一只鸽子,但他们看到这只鸽子独自徘徊,“它就坐在那里,他们觉得这很可疑——鸽子身上有芯片,脚上有环,”帕蒂尔说。于是警卫通知了警察。

Once Mr. Patil found a place to lock up the bird, the slow work of investigation began. And he started piecing together clues.

帕蒂尔找到一个地方把鸽子关起来后就开始了缓慢的调查工作。他开始拼凑线索。

The rings on the bird’s legs, including one that had a chip, were sent to the forensic sciences lab.

鸟腿上的环,包括一个带有芯片的环,都被送到了法医科学实验室。

“The chip had details of the location coding — what it is, where it has come from,” he said.

他说:“芯片上有详细的位置编码——它是什么,来自哪里。”

“Nothing else turned out suspicious,” he added.

“没有发现其他可疑之处,”他还说。

He cross-checked the details with information online and concluded that the pigeon was a racing bird from Taiwan. In speaking to the guards at the port, which mostly receives oil vessels bringing crude for refining, he learned that Taiwanese ships were among those that docked there. He deduced that the bird had probably reached Mumbai on one of the ships.

帕蒂尔根据网上的信息核对了细节,得出结论:这只鸽子是来自台湾的赛鸽。他在与港口警卫交谈时得知,停靠在这里的船只中有台湾船只。该港口主要停靠运送原油进行提炼的油轮。他推断,这只鸽子很可能是搭上其中一艘船到达孟买的。

“It may have been weak and injured, and boarded the ship and off-boarded here,” he said.

他说:“它可能身体虚弱,受了点伤,上船后在这里靠了岸。”

As for the cursive Chinese writing on the wings?

至于翅膀上的汉字草书?

“It was not readable,” he said. “Because it came by sea, it may have faded.”

“读不了,”他说。“因为是从海上过来的,可能已经褪色了。”

Just why the bird remained in lockup for several months after Mr. Patil had completed his investigation is a matter of disagreement. The hospital and PETA say the police were not responsive and had essentially forgotten about the bird. Mr. Patil said the hospital had misread instructions that the pigeon should be freed once in good enough health.

至于为什么在帕蒂尔完成调查后这只鸟还被关了几个月,各方都有自己的说法。医院和PETA说警方没有做出回应,基本上已经忘记了这只鸽子。帕蒂尔说,医院误读了指示,即一旦鸽子的健康状况足够好,就应该放了它。

The pigeon “looked no different from our pigeons,” Dr. Dangar said, and had done well on a local diet of wheat, millet and rice. So after the police finally responded to inquiries from the hospital and PETA with a “no objection” letter, it was set free on Tuesday.

丹格医生说,这只鸽子“看起来和我们的鸽子没什么两样”,而且吃当地的小麦、小米和大米过得很好。因此,在警方最终对医院和PETA的询问做出“无异议”答复后,这只鸽子于周二获释。

Asked what he would say if the pigeon’s Taiwanese owners came to claim it, Mr. Patil said the bird had a new home in Indian skies.

当被问及如果这只鸽子的台湾主人来认领,他会说些什么时,帕蒂尔表示,这只鸽子在印度的天空有了新家。

“Now it belongs to us, here,” Mr. Patil said.

帕蒂尔说:“现在,它是我们这里的了。”

MARK LANDLER

2024年2月7日

查尔斯三世国王在白金汉宫接见助产士和护士,摄于去年。长期以来,公开露面一直是英国王室塑造形象的一个主要方式。 Toby Melville/Reuters

Queen Elizabeth II liked to say that she needed to be seen to be believed. Now it falls to her son King Charles III to test that principle, after a cancer diagnosis that will force him out of the public eye for the foreseeable future.

英国女王伊丽莎白二世曾喜欢说,她需要被人看到,才能被人相信。如今,检验这个准则的责任落在她儿子查尔斯三世身上,因为被确诊患有癌症,在短期内,他将不得不离开公众的视线。

For a family that has cultivated its public image through thousands of appearances a year — ribbon-cuttings, ship launchings, gala benefits, investiture ceremonies, and so on — the sidelining of Charles may finally force the royals to rethink how they project themselves in a social-media age.

对于这个靠着每年几千次的公开露面——剪彩、船舶下水、公益晚会、授勋仪式等——来建立公众形象的家庭来说,查尔斯暂停公开露面也许最终会迫使王室成员们重新思考如何在社交媒体时代展现自己。

The king’s illness is the latest blow to the British royal family, which has seen its ranks depleted by death (Elizabeth and her husband, Prince Philip), scandal (Prince Andrew), self-exile (Prince Harry and his wife, Meghan), and other health woes (Catherine, the wife of Prince William).

国王患病是对英国王室的最新打击,王室的主要成员已经减少,有的是因为死亡(伊丽莎白和丈夫菲利普亲王),有的是因为丑闻(安德鲁王子),有的是因为自我流放(哈里王子和妻子梅根),还有的是因为其他健康问题(威廉王子的妻子凯瑟琳)。

Charles, who is 75, took part in 425 royal engagements in 2023, his first full year on the throne, according to a count by The Daily Telegraph. That made him the second hardest-working royal after his younger sister, Princess Anne, who did 457. Both were busier than in the previous year, when Elizabeth, though in the twilight of her life, still appeared in public sporadically.

据《每日电讯报》(The Daily Telegraph)统计,现年75岁的查尔斯2023年(他登基后的第一个全年)总共参加了425场王室活动。这使他成为第二勤奋的王室成员,排名第一的是他的妹妹安妮公主,她在2023年总共参加了457次王室活动。两人都比上年更忙,虽然2022年,伊丽莎白女王的生命已进入末期,但仍偶尔出现在公众面前。

While Anne, 73, shows little sign of slowing down and William plans to return to public duties while his wife convalesces at home from abdominal surgery, even a temporary absence of the king from the public stage would put heavy pressure on the family’s skeleton crew of working royals.

现年73岁的安妮几乎没有放慢脚步的迹象,威廉也计划在妻子腹部手术后在家休养期间重返公务职责,但即使国王只是暂时缺席公开活动,也会给承担公务职责的少数王室成员带来沉重的压力。

05UK ROYALS 04 pmlw master1050安妮公主(左)在周二履行王室职责的活动上为男高音歌唱家尼古拉斯·斯彭斯授勋。

“There aren’t that many of them,” said Peter Hunt, a former royal correspondent for the BBC. “There are only two of them who are under 50. They’ve got to decide whether to continue to deliver on the queen’s mantra. What is the core minimum of engagements they need to do to do that?”

“承担公务职责的成员没几个,”曾在英国广播公司负责王室报道的记者彼得·亨特说。“他们中只有两名不到50岁。他们需要决定是否继续践行女王的格言。如果要继续那样做的话,他们需要做的最低限度的核心工作是什么?”

The answer to that riddle, royal watchers argue, may lie in technology and social media. During the coronavirus pandemic, when Elizabeth was sequestered at Windsor Castle, she conducted meetings via Zoom calls, becoming comfortable enough with it that she cracked jokes with the pixelated faces on her computer screen.

观察王室的人士认为,问题的答案也许要靠技术和社交媒体。新冠病毒大流行期间,伊丽莎白女王被隔离在温莎城堡时,她用Zoom召开视频会议,对该技术运用自如,还拿电脑屏幕上的像素化面孔开玩笑。

Buckingham Palace’s use of social media can also amplify the in-person exposure of family members. The royal family’s Instagram account claims more than 13 million followers and its account on X well over five million.

白金汉宫也能通过社交媒体来扩大王室成员的亲身曝光率。王室的Instagram帐号声称拥有逾1300万关注者,其X帐号也有远高于500万的关注者。

For young people, who spend hours a day online and follow their favorite celebrities on social media, a royal turning up to dedicate a new primary school or neighborhood health clinic may not matter as much as it did to their parents or grandparents.

对每天在网上花好几个小时,在社交媒体上关注心爱名人的年轻人来说,王室成员亲自出席一所新小学或社区医疗诊所的落成仪式也许不像对他们的父母或祖父母们那么重要。

The greatest burden of the king’s illness is likely to fall on his 41-year-old heir, William. He has worked to carve out a role on issues from climate change to homelessness. How much time he will be able to devote to those causes while he is also functioning as an understudy for his father is not clear.

国王患病的最大负担可能会落在他的继承人、现年41岁的威廉身上。威廉已努力在气候变化和无家可归者等问题上发挥作用。在为父亲担任替补的同时,他能把多少时间投在这些事业上,目前还不清楚。

Ed Owens, a royal historian who recently published “After Elizabeth: Can the Monarchy Save Itself?,” argues that the royals should step back from these charitable pursuits in any event, because they interfere with the proper role of the government in society.

研究王室历史的学者艾德·欧文斯最近出版了一本题为《伊丽莎白之后——君主制能拯救自己吗?》(After Elizabeth: Can the Monarchy Save Itself?)的书。他认为,不管怎样,王室成员应该不再搞这些公益事业,因为这干扰了政府在社会中的应有作用。

“The culture of royal philanthropy,” Mr. Owens wrote, “has too often capitalized on the gaps left exposed in a broken welfare state.”

“王室的慈善文化往往利用了破碎的福利国家体系所暴露出来的漏洞,”欧文斯写道。

William has also jealously guarded his family’s privacy: Kensington Palace, where he has his office, offered few details about the condition of Catherine. There were no photographs of the couple’s three young children — George, Charlotte, and Louis — visiting their mother in the hospital.

威廉也在精心保护家人的隐私:他的办公室所在的肯辛顿宫对凯瑟琳的状况几乎未提供任何细节。没有他们的三个孩子——乔治、夏洛特和路易斯——去医院探望母亲的照片。

05UK ROYALS 03 pmlw master1050威廉王子检阅皇家海军学院学员,摄于去年。国王患病的最大负担可能会落在他的继承人威廉身上。

That approach stood in contrast to his father, who approved the disclosure of an unusual amount of detail about his prostate treatment, and more recent cancer diagnosis. The scrutiny of William will inevitably increase, experts said, as he occupies a more central place in the Windsor family hierarchy.

威廉的做法与父亲的形成鲜明对比,他父亲批准了发布有关自己前列腺治疗、以及最近癌症诊断大量细节。专家们说,随着威廉在温莎家族的地位上升到更核心的位置,对他的审视将不可避免地增长。

Another question looms, over the role of Prince Harry, the king’s younger son, who fell out bitterly with his father and brother after he and Meghan withdrew from royal duties and moved to California in 2020.

另一个迫在眉睫的问题是国王的小儿子哈里王子的角色。在他和妻子梅根2020年宣布不再承担王室职责并搬到美国加州后,他与父亲和哥哥的关系闹得很僵。

Harry arrived in London on Tuesday to visit his father, leading royal watchers to muse that the crisis could prompt a reconciliation between him and his family. But Harry did not bring his own family and it was not even clear where he would stay; the king evicted him from his residence, Frogmore Cottage, last year.

哈里已于周二抵达伦敦看望父亲,这让王室观察人士猜测,这场危机是否会促使他与家人和解。但哈里没有带他自己的家人来,外界甚至不清楚他将住在哪里;国王已在去年要求他搬出他在浮若阁摩尔庄园的住宅。

While Charles will cede the public stage for now, the palace has taken pains to emphasize that he remains a fully vested constitutional sovereign. He will continue to meet weekly with Prime Minister Rishi Sunak and see other visitors. He will continue to plow through official documents, delivered to him daily in a traditional red box.

虽然查尔斯现在将暂时退出公共舞台,但白金汉宫已煞费苦心地强调,他仍拥有君主立宪国家元首的所有权力。他将继续每周与首相里希·苏纳克会面,也将会见其他访客。他将继续处理每天用传统的红盒子装着送给他的官方文件。

There are no current plans to name counselors of state, who could perform some of the king’s duties if he were he incapacitated by illness. Among those on the roster for that role are Queen Camilla and William.

目前没有任命国务顾问的计划。如果国王因病无法工作,国务顾问可以履行国王的部分职责。候选名单上包括卡米拉王后和威廉。

05UK ROYALS 02 pmlw master1050查尔斯和卡米拉王后去年在白金汉宫会见了韩国总统尹锡悦和妻子金建希。

There are some rituals only a sitting monarch can perform. Charles must grant a request from the prime minister to dissolve the Parliament before a general election. He must also ask the leader of the party holding a majority to form a government.

有些仪规只有在位君主才能履行。首相在大选前解散议会的请求必须由查尔斯批准。也必须由他来要求获得议会多数席位的政党领袖组建政府。

None of this is hypothetical in a year that is expected to include an election, and one in which the opposition Labour Party currently has a roughly 20-point lead over the Conservatives in opinion polls.

所有这些都不是假定的问题,预计英国将在今年举行大选,而且在野的工党目前在民意调查中领先保守党约20个百分点。

Elizabeth viewed these duties as so solemn that she steeled herself, two days before her death at 96, to meet with Boris Johnson, the outgoing prime minister, and Liz Truss, his successor, at Balmoral Castle in Scotland.

伊丽莎白女王认为这些职责极为庄严,以至于她在以96岁高龄去世的两天前,硬是坚持在位于苏格兰的巴尔莫勒尔堡与即将卸任的首相鲍里斯·约翰逊及其继任利兹·特拉斯会面。

Mr. Sunak, who has spoken to Charles about his cancer, sought to soothe worries about the king’s prognosis. Speaking to BBC Radio 5 Live on Tuesday, he said, “Thankfully, this has been caught early.”

苏纳克已与查尔斯讨论了后者的癌症,并试图缓解人们对国王预后的担忧。苏纳克在周二接受BBC Radio 5 Live的采访时说,“谢天谢地,发现得很早。”

A spokesman at 10 Downing Street later clarified that Mr. Sunak was not passing on new information but referring to the palace’s statement, which took note of the “swift intervention” of Charles’ medical team.

唐宁街10号的一名发言人后来澄清说,苏纳克并不是在传递新信息,而是在重复白金汉宫的声明,该声明提到为查尔斯治病的医疗团队进行了“迅速干预”。

Whatever his prognosis, the king’s cancer thrusts the royal family into uncharted territory. Historians noted that when Charles’s grandfather, King George VI, had cancer surgery in 1951, the palace told the public almost nothing about his condition. He died five months later, putting his daughter Elizabeth on the throne, 72 years ago on Tuesday.

无论国王的预后如何,他的癌症已使王室面临一个崭新局势。历史学家指出,查尔斯的祖父乔治六世国王1951年因癌症动了手术,当时,王宫几乎未向公众透露他的任何情况。五个月后,国王去世了,72年前的2月6日,他的女儿伊丽莎白继承了王位。

When she died in September 2022, her death certificate listed the cause as “old age.” Gyles Brandreth, a friend of the royal family, said later in a biography of the queen that she had been suffering from a form of bone-marrow cancer.

当伊丽莎白女王于2022年9月去世时,她死亡证明上写的死因是“年老”。王室的朋友盖尔斯·布兰德雷斯后来一部女王传记中写道,女王当时已患上一种骨髓癌。

By opting to be more open about his health struggles, Charles has diverged from long family practice. He did so, the palace said, “in the hope it may assist public understanding for all those around the world who are affected by cancer.”

查尔斯的行为与这个家庭的长期做法不同,他选择了更公开地谈论自己的健康问题。白金汉宫表示,他这样做是“希望帮助公众了解世界各地所有受癌症影响的人”。

Whether the king can disprove the queen’s mantra about having to be seen to be believed is another question.

国王能否推翻女王的说法——必须被亲眼所见才能让人相信——则是另一个问题了。

ALAN FEUER, CHARLIE SAVAGE

2024年2月7日

前总统特朗普预计将继续向最高法院提出上诉。 Doug Mills/The New York Times

A federal appeals court on Tuesday rejected former President Donald J. Trump’s claim that he was immune from prosecution on charges of plotting to subvert the results of the 2020 election, ruling that he must go to trial on a criminal indictment accusing him of seeking to overturn his loss to President Biden.

一家联邦上诉法院周二驳回了前总统特朗普关于他可以免于被指控阴谋颠覆2020年大选结果的主张。他被指控试图推翻输给拜登总统的结果,法院裁定他必须就此刑事起诉接受审判。

The unanimous ruling, by a three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, handed Mr. Trump a significant defeat. But it was unlikely to be the final word on his claims of executive immunity: Mr. Trump, who is on a path to locking up the Republican presidential nomination, is expected to continue his appeal to the Supreme Court.

美国哥伦比亚特区巡回上诉法院由三位法官组成的合议庭做出了一致裁决,这使特朗普遭遇重大挫败。但这不太可能是对其行政豁免权主张的最终裁决:有望锁定共和党总统候选人提名的特朗普将继续向最高法院提起上诉。

Still, the panel’s 57-page ruling signaled an important moment in American jurisprudence, answering a question that had never been addressed by an appeals court: Can former presidents escape being held accountable by the criminal justice system for things they did while in office?

尽管如此,该合议庭长达57页的裁决仍标志着美国法理学的一个重要时刻,回答了一个上诉法院从未解答过的问题:前总统能否逃脱刑事司法系统对其在任期间所做所为的问责?

The question is novel because no former president until Mr. Trump had been indicted, so there was never an opportunity for a defendant to make — and courts to consider — the sweeping claim of executive immunity that he put forward.

这个问题很新颖,因为在特朗普之前,还没有前总统被起诉过,所以从来没有机会让一名被告去提出特朗普提出的关于行政豁免权的全面主张,法院也从来没有机会去考虑这一问题。

The panel, composed of two judges appointed by Democrats and one Republican appointee, said in its decision that, despite the privileges of the office he once held, Mr. Trump was subject to federal criminal law like any other American.

该合议庭由两名民主党任命的法官和一名共和党任命的法官组成,他们在裁决中表示,尽管特朗普曾经拥有总统职位的特权,但和其他美国人一样,他也要遵守联邦刑法。

“For the purpose of this criminal case, former President Trump has become citizen Trump, with all of the defenses of any other criminal defendant,” the panel wrote. “But any executive immunity that may have protected him while he served as president no longer protects him against this prosecution.”

“就这起刑事案件而言,前总统特朗普已成为公民特朗普,拥有任何其他刑事被告的所有辩护权。”裁决写道。“但是,在他担任总统期间可能对他起到保护作用的任何行政豁免权都不再能保护他免受此次起诉。”

The three judges cast Mr. Trump’s immunity claims as a danger to the nation’s constitutional system.

三位法官认为,特朗普的豁免权主张是对国家宪法制度的一种威胁。

“At bottom, former President Trump’s stance would collapse our system of separated powers by placing the president beyond the reach of all three branches,” they wrote. “Presidential immunity against federal indictment would mean that, as to the president, the Congress could not legislate, the executive could not prosecute and the judiciary could not review. We cannot accept that the office of the presidency places its former occupants above the law for all time thereafter.”

“从根本上说,前总统特朗普的立场将使我们的三权分立制度崩溃,因为他将总统置于所有三个分支的管辖范围之外,”他们写道。“总统享有联邦起诉豁免权将意味着,对于总统,国会不能立法,行政部门不能起诉,司法部门不能审查。我们不能接受这样的说法,即总统职位使前任总统在此后的任何时间里都凌驾于法律之上。”

A spokesman for Jack Smith, the special counsel who brought the case against Mr. Trump, declined to comment on the decision.

对特朗普提起诉讼的特别检察官杰克·史密斯的发言人拒绝对此裁决发表评论。

Steven Cheung, a spokesman for Mr. Trump’s campaign, said the former president “respectfully disagrees” with the decision and would appeal it.

特朗普竞选团队的发言人史蒂文·张(音)表示,这位前总统“恕难同意”这一决定,并将提出上诉。

“If immunity is not granted to a president, every future president who leaves office will be immediately indicted by the opposing party,” Mr. Cheung said. “Without complete immunity, a president of the United States would not be able to properly function.”

“如果不给予总统豁免权,今后每一位卸任总统都会立即被对立的党派起诉,”他说。“如果没有完全的豁免权,美国总统将无法正常履行职责。”

The panel’s ruling came nearly a month after it heard arguments on the immunity issue from Mr. Trump’s legal team and from prosecutors working for Mr. Smith. While the decision was quick by the standards of a normal appeal, what happens next will be arguably more important in determining not only when a trial on the election subversion charges will take place, but also on the timing of Mr. Trump’s three other criminal trials.

在听取了特朗普律师团队和为特别检察官史密斯工作的检察官就豁免权问题进行的辩论近一个月后,合议庭做出了裁决。虽然按照普通上诉的标准,这一裁决是迅速作出的,但接下来发生的事情可以说更为重要,它不仅将决定颠覆选举指控的审判何时进行,还将决定特朗普其他三项刑事审判的时间安排。

In addition to the federal indictment charging him with seeking to overturn his election loss in 2020, he faces similar charges brought by a district attorney in Georgia. In a footnote, the panel stressed that its decision did not address the separate question of whether state prosecutors could charge a former president over official actions.

除了联邦起诉指控特朗普试图推翻2020年的选举失利之外,他还面临佐治亚州地方检察官提出的类似指控。合议庭在脚注中强调,其裁决并未涉及州检察官是否可以对前总统在任期内的职务行为提出指控这一单独问题。

Mr. Smith, the special counsel appointed to oversee the federal prosecutions, has also brought a case in Florida accusing Mr. Trump of mishandling highly sensitive classified documents after leaving office and obstructing efforts to retrieve them. And Mr. Trump is scheduled to go on trial next month in Manhattan on charges related to hush-money payments to a porn star during the 2016 campaign.

被任命监督联邦起诉的特别检察官史密斯还在佛罗里达州提起诉讼,指控特朗普在卸任后对高度敏感的机密文件处理不当,并阻挠政府收回这些文件。特朗普还定于下月在曼哈顿受审,罪名与2016年竞选期间向一名色情明星支付封口费有关。

When Mr. Trump first sought to have the federal election case dismissed on grounds of immunity, it was an attempt to expand the protections the Supreme Court had already granted to sitting and former presidents against civil lawsuits concerning their official actions.

当特朗普首次以豁免权为由,要求驳回联邦法庭的颠覆选举案时,其目的是试图扩大最高法院已经给予现任和前任总统的保护,这种保护使其免受有关其职务行为的民事诉讼。

While not accepting that Mr. Trump’s actions were official — the panel noted that presidents have no constitutionally prescribed role in counting electoral college votes — the judges rejected his arguments about being immune from criminal charges.

法官们不承认特朗普的行为是职务行为——合议庭指出,宪法没有规定总统在计算选举人团选票时的职责——同时法官们驳回了他关于免于刑事指控的论点。

“We cannot accept former President Trump’s claim that a president has unbounded authority to commit crimes that would neutralize the most fundamental check on executive power — the recognition and implementation of election results,” the judges wrote. “Nor can we sanction his apparent contention that the executive has carte blanche to violate the rights of individual citizens to vote and to have their votes count.”

“我们不能接受前总统特朗普的说法,即总统拥有不受限制的权力,可以犯下抵消对行政权力最根本的制约——承认和执行选举结果——的罪行,”法官们写道。“我们也不能认可他的明显论点,即行政部门可以全权侵犯公民个人的投票权和计票权。”

The unsigned decision was issued by all three judges: Karen L. Henderson, an appointee of former President George H.W. Bush, and two appointees of President Biden, Judges Florence Y. Pan and J. Michelle Childs.

这项未署名的裁决是由三名法官一致做出的:由前总统乔治·H·W·布什任命的卡伦·亨德森法官,由拜登总统任命的弗洛伦斯·潘法官和米歇尔·蔡尔兹法官。

During the arguments last month, the judges signaled particular concern after Mr. Trump’s lawyer argued that a former president could avoid criminal prosecution even for ordering SEAL Team 6, an elite group of Navy commandos, to assassinate one of his political rivals unless the Senate had first convicted him at an impeachment trial.

在上个月的辩论中,特朗普的律师提出,除非参议院在弹劾审判中首先对他定罪,否则前总统即使下令海豹突击队六分队(一支由海军突击队员组成的精英队伍)暗杀他的一名政治对手,他也可以免受刑事起诉。法官们对此表示尤为关注。

The panel rejected the Trump legal team’s arguments about the necessity of an impeachment conviction before bringing criminal charges.

合议庭驳回了特朗普法律团队关于在提起刑事指控之前必须先进行弹劾定罪的论点。

And in another significant part of their decision, the three appellate judges also circumscribed Mr. Trump’s ability to use further appeals to waste more time and delay the election case from going to trial — a strategy the former president has pursued since the indictment against him was filed in August in Federal District Court in Washington.

在判决的另一个重要部分,三位上诉法官还限制了特朗普利用进一步上诉来浪费更多时间并推迟选举案开审的能力——自8月份华盛顿联邦地区法院对他提起诉讼以来,这位前总统一直在采取这一策略。

The panel said that Mr. Trump had until Monday to ask the Supreme Court to get involved in the case and continue a stay of all the underlying proceedings. The case was initially put on hold by the trial judge in December.

合议庭表示,特朗普必须在周一之前请求最高法院介入此案,并继续暂停所有相关程序。该案最初于12月被初审法官搁置

But the panel imposed a rule designed to discourage Mr. Trump from making an intermediate challenge to the full court of appeals. It said that if Mr. Trump instead took that route, trial preparations could begin again after Feb. 12.

但合议庭制定了一项规则,旨在阻止特朗普向上诉法院全体法官提出中间上诉。合议庭表示,如果特朗普采取这一途径,庭审准备工作可在2月12日后重新开始。

If the question does reach the Supreme Court, the justices will first have to decide whether to accept the case or to reject it and allow the appeals court’s ruling against Mr. Trump to stand.

如果这个问题提交到最高法院,大法官们首先必须决定是接受此案,还是驳回此案,并允许上诉法院作出不利于特朗普的裁决。

If they decline to hear the issue, the case would be sent directly back to the trial judge, Tanya S. Chutkan. She scrapped her initial March 4 date for the trial last week, but has otherwise shown every sign of wanting to move the charges toward trial as quickly as possible.

如果他们拒绝审理此案,此案将被直接送回初审法官塔尼娅·丘特坎手中。她上周取消了原定于3月4日的庭审,但在其他方面却表现出希望尽快将指控提交庭审的种种迹象。

If, however, the Supreme Court does accept the case, the crucial question will become how quickly the justices act in asking for briefs and in scheduling arguments. Should they move rapidly to hear the case and issue a decision, there remains the chance that a trial on the election charges will occur before the general election in November.

如果最高法院真的受理此案,关键问题将是大法官们在要求提交辩护状和安排辩论时间方面的行动有多迅速。如果他们迅速审理此案并做出裁决,那么在11月大选之前对选举指控进行庭审的可能性仍然存在。

But if the justices take their time, it is possible a trial could be delayed until after the election. If that were to happen and Mr. Trump were to win, he would be in a position to ask his Justice Department to dismiss the case or even seek to pardon himself.

但如果大法官们没有迅速行动,审判有可能推迟到大选之后。如果出现这种情况,而特朗普最终胜选,他将有资格要求司法部驳回此案,甚至寻求赦免自己。

Even though Mr. Trump put three of the justices on the bench, the Supreme Court has not shown much of an appetite for wading into issues related to his efforts to tinker with the mechanics of American democracy.

尽管特朗普任命了三名大法官,但是对于介入特朗普试图篡改美国民主机制有关的问题,最高法院并没有表现出太大的兴趣。

But the question of how to handle Mr. Trump’s immunity claim is heading the Supreme Court’s way as it prepares for arguments on Thursday about another momentous question related to the former president: whether he can be disqualified from the ballot for having engaged in an act of insurrection by encouraging his supporters to storm the Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

面临如何处理特朗普的豁免权主张问题之际,最高法院正准备在周四就另一个与这位前总统有关的重大问题进行辩论:是否可以因他在2021年1月6日鼓动支持者冲击国会大厦的叛乱行为而取消他的竞选资格。

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